Many private homeowners are increasingly using solar energy for heating homes than traditional. It has long been acting as a free alternative to other non-renewable sources, because the sun is an inexhaustible source of energy that has now been learned to use in useful purposes.
In this article we will look at the features of the operation of solar panels for homes, find out what types of such installations exist, also you will get acquainted with reviews of owners of houses that have already equipped their dwellings with solar batteries.
- 1 The growing popularity of solar energy
- 2 Solar panels for the home: how it works
3 Solar cell classification
- 3.1 Thin film solar cells and their description
- 3.2 Description of monocrystalline panels
- 3.3 Polycrystalline solar cells and their features
- 4 Technical characteristics of solar panels
- 5 Pros and cons of using solar panels
- 6 Solar panels for the home: customer reviews
The growing popularity of solar energy
If you search on the Internet, you will find a lot of positive and even enthusiastic reviews of solar batteries from those who have already installed them. Their popularity is growing for a number of reasons. For example, the cost of using the same gas or coal is constantly increasing, and solar power plants - This is an excellent reserve of energy for houses in small communities where they often turn off electricity. Solar energy -
On an industrial scale, the production of such plants has been established in such countries as:
Solar panels for the home: how it works
In Russia and other countries with cold winters, many doubt the performance of such plants, since many there are no days in the year of the sun, therefore the solar energy accumulated during the warm period during severe frosts is fast is wasted.
However, such installations have a large enough powerwhich is from 200 watts for one module, they are capable of producing energy throughout the daylight hours and are able to catch light even with precipitation or thick clouds. The only negative is a decrease in power during bad weather about two times. But, on the other hand, solar panels have the ability to accumulate energy, which will be given in insufficient sunlight.
The new generation of installations based on amorphous silicon differs from the previous one in that such batteries do not need to be directed to the sun, for their normal operation the middle area will be enough. But they have a significant drawback - under their placement you need allocate a large area. And productivity in the north of Russia will be significantly lower than in the Crimea or Krasnodar Territory. But at the same time in the same St. Petersburg, they can still be used with success for a year.
Principle of operation The installations are as follows:
- Solar-powered generators are models that capture solar energy. They work on the basis of photoelectric reactions and produce current according to the principle of emission of heated bodies;
- panels are made on the basis of silicon. The efficiency of one panel is about 30 percent at a power of 300 watts. And in order to get the best result, several dozen elements are combined in a chain, thanks to which the installations are able to operate at average cloudiness;
- so that the temperature in the house of 30 square meters is comfortable throughout the year, the total area of the modules must be at least 100 square meters, and in the house itself you need to put batteries and distribution equipment. Judging by the reviews of owners of private houses, this is one of the most difficult conditions for installing solar panels.
Solar cell classification
To get a good installation performance, you need to choose a model based on those elements that are suitable for your climate and terrain. There are several types of solar cells that differ from each other. on the structure of the working surface their photocells and manufacturing features:
- thin film;
Thin film solar cells and their description
Photocells of such installations are made on the basis of amorphous silicon, also called a thin-film coating. They are the most affordable in terms of cost, but they are not widely sold. Solar panels of this type consist of stretched thin film, which can be placed anywhere, and it is not afraid of even heavy clouds. Key advantages of thin film systems such:
- dust cannot damage the battery;
- if weather conditions are adverse, efficiency is reduced by only 20 percent.
However, the disadvantage of thin-film batteries is the need to allocate a large area in the house for their installation.
In the manufacture of these plates are subject to several heat treatment steps, and in the end they have another shade.
Description of monocrystalline panels
Such installations include photocells that use monocrystalline silicon, they the most expensive among all solar-type batteries, but they also have the highest performance. They are manufactured by using the technology of slow cooling of the melt. silicon based.
The result is an ingot, which, on the one hand, is considered a single crystal, and the second one is created homogeneous. After it cools, it is cut into two halves, and this or that structure is already on them.
This battery includes a huge number of silicone cells, which serve as converters of solar energy. Very often they are used for installation on watercraft, because they are not afraid of moisture. The type of batteries is perfect for installation in places where there is a lot of sun, they are usually placed on the roof of the house, reliability is on the sunny side as well as on the shadow side.
Advantages of monocrystalline solar cells such:
- small weight;
- compact dimensions of installations;
- duration of use;
- easy installation;
- design flexibility
But their significant drawback is that their work depends on the directness of the sun's rays and the process energy production may suffer due to even a small cloud cover, which will cover the rays the sun.
Polycrystalline solar cells and their features
They are based on photovoltaic cells. polycrystalline silicon. In the production of batteries of this type, the technology of obtaining crystallization centers and small crystals in an ingot is used. The process of heat treatment does not differ from the processing of single-crystal plates, but the electrical characteristics of polycrystalline batteries will be higher.
They differ from the installations of the previous type in different areas and outlines. The crystals have a bright blue tint and different forms, they are placed in different directions.
Batteries are clearly type apply to the following objects:
- private houses;
- administrative buildings;
- street lighting.
Technical characteristics of solar panels
As already mentioned, the choice of battery of a particular type depends on the region of application. For example, for the southern regions of our country it is better to use polycrystalline batteries, they are better suited for those places where in winter there is almost no frost. But for the northern regions of the country, single-crystal installations are better suited, which would better capture the diffused light, but should be directed from it.
The technical characteristics of the silicon-based panels are as follows:
- high level of resistance efficiency, ranging from 20 percent;
- permeable body;
- strained glass;
- resistance to weather extremes and bad climatic conditions.
As a rule, in homes where they receive energy with solar panels, use electrical system, but in some cases they use water type of heating. The scheme and installation of such a system is different in that you need to prepare more space for the installation of batteries, as well as a DC-DC converter.
If you use solar energy for heating, it is much more efficient to heat large areas to low temperature values. It will be much easier for common ones to change the temperature when the weather changes, and to set them better. Also, you will not spoil the interior of the house by installing huge radiators.
Pros and cons of using solar panels
The myth among the population is that solar panels are a luxury available only to wealthy people. But in reality this is not at all the case, and the batteries may allow people even with average incomes.
So if you invest once in the purchase of solar panels and their installation (which, nevertheless, the relevant skills you can do it yourself) for the next 25 years you will receive electricity is free. Of course, if you live in Moscow or St. Petersburg, then everything will not be so smooth, since the temperature differences in the seasons are very significant, but, ensuring, the savings will be substantial.
If as an example, if you have a house with hot water, the costs will be reduced by about 70 percent, and only 30 percent of the water you will receive by the traditional method, therefore, you will only pay this part. And in summer, the battery can provide hot water and 100 percent.
You can highlight such installation benefits solar cell:
- The sun as a source of energy is available anywhere on the planet. This source is reliable, and energy can be obtained from it completely free of charge. Energy is produced in sunlight during daylight hours;
- autonomy of use. With this solution, you will not depend on the supplier of electricity and hot water, at least partially;
- the cost of installations is constantly decreasing, and their production is constantly being improved. Solar energy in terms of cost is already beginning to compete with traditional fuels. In remote corners of the country in comparison with them, it will be much more profitable in terms of the ratio of cost and consumption;
- lack of rights and licenses for the consumption of solar energy;
- the ability to independently decide the amount of consumption and energy production.
However, remember that acquisition of modules, accessories, additional installations, and also installation of a design will cost you considerable money.
Also solar panels have a number of disadvantages, which explains the fact that not all the inhabitants of the planet are ready to switch entirely to solar energy:
- difficulty of use in regions where there is heavy cloudiness and frequent precipitation. Especially batteries prevent snow from working normally. The working surface of the batteries must always be open, and heavy snowfall prevents this;
- the need to prepare for the installation of large area panels (as a rule, this is the roof of the house);
- high price;
- not very high efficiency in bad weather;
- the need to purchase additional devices (inverters) to produce alternating current, as well as batteries, which are needed for storing energy;
- long payback period of the structure;
- the need for continuous cleaning of dirt, dust or snow, since any kind of pollution dramatically reduces the efficiency of the panels.
Although, according to many developers, most of these problems in the future will be resolvedand anyone can use solar energy.
Solar panels for the home: customer reviews
Below we offer to read the reviews of those who have already installed solar batteries in their homes and decided to share their experience in using them.
I put the solar panels in a country cottage, but as long as I use them to power one kitchen, I plan to install them in stages for all parts of the house. Now there are 160, 180 and 300 W plates on the roof, their total operating current is 15 A. I buy them gradually as prices fall. I also reduce costs due to the fact that there are energy-saving lamps in the kitchen, and I also have a controller for charging. I am very pleased, because the winds often break wires and the light disappears.
It is often said that the installation of such batteries is very expensive, and they either will not pay for their equipment, or after ages. At first we had read all this and decided to install a transformer station, but figured out the cost - it turned out to be much more expensive than the solar power system. As a result, set the autonomous SANFORS solar system, Energy "solar modules. It is really profitable and convenient!
Own house in Murmansk. San solar power system was installed as an auxiliary power source. Chose a long time, looking for a lot of information. It successfully functions together with autonomous gas thermal supply. The house is warm even in extreme cold, and we still protected from power outages, and it is very profitable.
Most people in their reviews about solar batteries notes that while they cannot be used as an independent source of energy and you have to have a major one. Although progress does not stand still, it is quite possible that after only a few years they will completely replace traditional sources of energy. Therefore, if there is an opportunity, then you can invest in such a purchase now. Most likely, it will pay off much faster than you expect.