Calculation of light is important for comfortable conditions at work or at home. Quality lighting is not only a convenience, but also the health of people. And with an excess or lack of light, not only vision suffers. This factor can also cause high fatigue and psychological discomfort. Therefore, it is very important to choose the right lighting.
1 How to choose a lamp?
- 1.1 A little about the lamps
2 Types of lamps
- 2.1 A little about the lamps
3 Ease of calculation
- 3.1 Choose the number of lamps
- 3.2 Other features
- 3.3 LED lightening
How to choose a lamp?
Illumination - This is the amount of luminous flux required for lighting 1 square. m rooms. Measure it in suites. There are norms of illumination for residential and business premises. Using them and various auxiliary tables is quite simple to calculate the required amount of light for a particular room.
To calculate there special programs online. The interface of such programs is quite simple and straightforward. The following parameters are set in the respective fields:
- Dimensions of the room;
- The size of the illuminated surface. Its height can be found in the norms of lighting. Usually for a floor it is 0, and the height of the desktop is 0.8 m;
- Approximate reflectance of light from the surface. It is not terrible if their exact numerical values are unknown. You can focus on the specified background brightness;
- Select the type of lamp and the number of lamps in it. Usually, when choosing a luminaire, you can find out the lamps available for him;
- The room category is selected from the list, and the program automatically gives the illumination rate.
Is important luminous flux and safety factor lamps. It takes into account the aging of lighting devices and their dusting. Choose it based on the norms of lighting. For incandescent lamps in our country it is 1.2, and for discharge lamps - 1.4.
There are exceptions for rooms where it is especially dusty. In such cases a higher safety factor is taken. The result obtained can usually be printed out on a printer.
There are calculators for calculating incandescent bulbs and halogen or elements. They will help you calculate how many light sources are required in a given room.
A little about the lamps
Optimal for humans is natural light. To bring artificial lighting to natural need carefully select light sources their power. It takes into account many factors, including the conditions in the room.
There are several types of artificial lighting:
- The general is used to illuminate a room or office as a whole;
- A functional option is needed to provide light on a work surface, for example, on a kitchen or writing desk, on a machine tool. They can divide the room into zones;
- Accented light is used for lighting, creating a certain atmosphere in the room, for visual effects. Here, LED structures are commonly used;
- Combined lighting is usually used with special requirements. When necessary accuracy of work.
To make the illumination calculation correct better to use a special program in the Internet. With its help it is easy to choose the best option for a particular room or office.
Types of lamps
To calculate the illumination you need to know the different parameters of the width and length of the room, the height of the suspension of the lighting structures, the safety factor, the luminous flux. But, above all, pick up the lamps to be used.
The main types of lighting elements:
- Tungsten filament lamp. The simplest element of illumination is nevertheless its spectrum closest to the sun;
- Gas charging lighting element here light is produced by electric discharge in a metal vapor or gas. This type includes: energy saving, mercury lamps, for street lighting. Sodium arc tubular DNaT, high pressure DNaZ;
- LED or led lamps are modern and comfortable. This is a new word in light technology;
- Halogen lamps among them quartz, incandescent KG, metal halide, mirror;
- Fluorescent white and daylight, compact;
- Xenon ball DKSSH.
Naturally, each type has its own characteristics. Therefore, before choosing one or another option, it is necessary to take into account the conditions in which they will be applied, the type of premises and other factors. Such as luminous flux, power element and color reproduction.
According to the program, it is not difficult to calculate the illumination of a certain room on the basis of the norms Selects the type of lamp and power. There is such a criterion as color rendition. This concept includes color temperature and shade of lighting. The first changes from red to blue. Its lesser value is close to red, and more to blue.
Hue is usually cold or warm in many lamps. It is he who sets the tonality of the light flux. Have standard filament elements everything is simple with color reproduction. It has the same meaning and shade of light. In the compact fluorescent lamp, you can choose a warm or cold shade and color reproduction.
There is one more thing. When choosing a lamp, first of all, you need to look at how many watts the cartridge is designed for. Manufacturers usually indicate it on the cartridge or the lamp itself. Especially this important if halogen is used or incandescent bulbs. After all, they produce heat. And when installing a more powerful lamp than indicated, the cartridge may melt.
A little about the lamps
Also, do not lose sight of a few moments associated with lighting designs. What is the first thing to pay attention to?
- To the place where the device will be installed. It may be a wall or ceiling;
- How high the light source is;
- The transparency of the ceiling;
- The direction of the light.
It is necessary to take into account the color of furniture and wallpaper. After all dark tones absorb light, light, on the contrary reflect. Therefore, if the design of the room is sustained in light shades, accordingly, losses in illumination can be avoided. When the interior is darker, then the illumination should be more.
Matt ceiling lamp gently distributes the light, but at the same time some loss of light is possible compared to transparent. If you choose a more powerful lighting element, for example, a 100 W incandescent lamp, it compensates for these light losses.
As for the location of the light source, the lamp installed above the floor gives more illumination. For example, a chandelier on the ceiling illuminates a larger area than a wall lamp.
Ease of calculation
What are the advantages of self-calculation of lighting using the program?
- Energy saving due to optimal choice of lamps and light sources
- There is no need to invite a specialist to the house for the calculation.
- It also helps to determine the exact number of designs for lighting.
Using an online calculator is quite simple. In this case, the result will be accurate.
Choose the number of lamps
It will help him choose the desired number of lighting designs for the room. You will need the parameters of the room and the reflection coefficient of the ceiling and floor. The distance between the work surface and the lamp. Type of lamps and their power. Lamp usage its type and power. You also need to enter the norms of lighting for this room.
So you can make an accurate calculation of all the necessary fixtures. And provide a comfortable environment at work or at home. For example, the office ceiling height is 3.0 m, it has light walls and suspended ceilings. Hence the flow utilization factor is 0.5. According to the standard illumination should be 400 lux.
Accordingly, the luminous flux will be 24 000 lm. Thus, it is determined that using an incandescent lamp requires 1.2 kW for a small room. But lighting technology specialists usually recommend the use of modern LED systems. Then the power consumption will be 200 watts. From here it is easy to calculate the number of required fixtures.
It should pay attention to the type of light local or primary. That is, the overhead light that illuminates the whole space or local, which includes floor lamps, wall lamps, table lamps.
If this is a living room, then the main source of light is most reasonable to make chandeliers lamps with a frosted canopy. So the light spreads evenly and gently around the room. If you want to illuminate part of the room, then a good option would be a lampcoated with a layer of reflective material. This will create a more localized nature of the lighting.
It allows the program to enter the parameters of the already existing room and the devices used, determine how much the illumination meets the standards and, if necessary, correct it. To do this, enter:
- Number of lamps;
- The number of lamps in each piece;
- Power of one lamp in the device in watts;
- The area of the room.
Usually the optimal power of one luminaire for a standard office space is 20 W / sq. m. You can also calculate the area that can illuminate the device. Or the maximum height for it. As a rule, programs have tips.
Such lighting devices can make residential and office space comfortable and more modern. Besides, fixtures save money providing sufficient luminous flux. The question is what kind of lamps and how many LED lamps you need for a comfortable environment.
In special programs, you can calculate the required number of LED lamps with the help of data entry and auxiliary materials. Enter the power, number and location of lamps. What is important here is the coefficient of its pulsation, and other lighting indicators.
In the data sheet of each led lamp there is data on the magnitude of the luminous flux. Therefore, you just need to take the standard SNiP which is easy to find on the Internet and multiplied by square meters of the room in square meters. The resulting value is divided into the luminous flux of one led lamp. Based on this determines the right amount and power LED lighting products. This optimizes power consumption.
It is worth considering that the more sources, the smoother the light. So if there is a design option for lighting and a few lamps that will be built into the ceiling. That is recommended to distribute at equal distance from each other 8 bulbs with a capacity of 5 watts.
Or you can concentrate them in the necessary area of the room. You can make several switches and light one or another part of the room as needed. Or turn on all at once to get a bright light.
By the way, the use of different types of light sources in the same room is quite acceptable. Usually try to choose the smallest number of devices, but so that the lighting was comfortable. It is important to observe its uniformity. or zonality
Calculation programs are very simple step-by-step editors that are easy to work with. Therefore, when you need an accurate result, they are the best option for the calculation of illumination. Thus, it is possible not only to reduce energy costs, but also achieve maximum convenience in working and home environment.