Making a 220V LED lamp with your own hands is an interesting exercise that requires patience. Additionally, you need a little knowledge of physics, and the ability to solder. The main task is to create scheme converter alternating current network to a constant 12 V, which runs the LED lamp.
1 LED lamp
- 1.1 Use of LED lights
- 2 Making a LED lamp with your own hands
3 LED light patterns
- 3.1 Diode bridge converter circuit
- 3.2 LED element
- 3.3 Schemes for a softer glow
- 4 Resistor circuits
5 LED lamp housings
- 5.1 Socket with incandescent bulbs
- 5.2 Energy Saving Lamp Housing
Represents a small luminous diode element, operating from DC mainly in 12V. To create lamps they are collected in several, depending on the required light intensity. The advantages of such lighting:
- scanty electricity consumption;
- service life of 100,000 hours;
- can work for days without shutting down;
- on sale there is a wide choice of various models.
The main disadvantage of the high cost of ready-made LED lamps. Sellers are not well versed in the question and can not competently answer your questions. In the very characteristic of the lamp
On the packaging of the lamp are calculated data, based on the characteristics and the number of LED elements. Therefore, in fact the luminous flux of the purchased lamp is much lower than the required and the lighting is weak. Lamps themselves and parts to create schemes cost a penny. Therefore, the easiest way for craftsmen to do everything with their own hands.
Use of LED lights
In homes and apartments often need constant lighting of a place. These can be stairs and children's rooms, toilets where there are no windows, and a child lives in the house who cannot reach the switch.
Dim light and low energy consumption allow you to put the lighting in the entrances and on the porch, in front of the gate and the garage door. Lamps with a soft glow due to the suppression of glare, used to illuminate desktops in offices and in the kitchen.
Making a LED lamp with your own hands
Many are tormented by the question of how to make an LED lamp with their own hands and is it possible. There are many circuits for creating LED lighting that works on AC 220 V; all of them solve a number of common tasks:
- convert AC to pulsating;
- align it to permanent;
- to make current strength equal to 12V.
When creating LED lighting with your own hands, you also have to solve problems:
- where to put the circuits and LEDs;
- how to isolate the lighting design;
- correct heat transfer.
LED light patterns
Alignment of variable sweat and the creation of the necessary power and resistance for LED lamps is solved in two ways. Schemes can be divided into:
- with a diode bridge;
- resistor, with an even number of LED elements.
Each option has simple schemes and its own advantages.
Diode bridge converter circuit
The diode bridge consists of 4 diodesaimed in different directions. Its task is to turn a sinusoidal alternating current into a pulsating one. Every half wave goes through two elements.and minus changes its polarity.
In the circuit, for the LED lamp, in front of the bridge from the side of the AC source, a capacitor C10.47x250 v is connected to the plus. Before the minus terminal is put resistance to 100 ohms. Behind the bridge, parallel to it, there is another capacitor, C25x400 v, which smoothes the voltage drop. Do-it-yourself scheme is easy, it is enough to have skills in working with a soldering iron.
The board with LED elements is applied standard, from the failed lamp. It is necessary to check before assembling that all parts are working. To do this, use the battery at 12 V, it is possible from the car. Non-working elements can be replaced by undoing contacts neatly and putting new ones. Carefully follow the location of the anode and cathode legs. They are connected in series.
When replacing 2 - 3 parts, you simply solder them in accordance with the position occupied by the failed elements.
Assembling a new LED lamp with your own hands, you need to remember a simple rule. Lamps are connected in series, then these circuits are connected in parallel. In practice, it looks like this:
- 10 LEDs put in a row and solder the legs of the anode one with the second cathode. It turns out 9 compounds and one free tail around the edges.
- All chains solder to the wires. To one cathode ends, to another anodic.
The texts often use the verbal designation of contacts, on the diagrams icons. Reminder for beginners electricians:
- the cathode, positive - “+”, joins the minus;
- Anode negative - "-", joins the plus.
When assembling schemes with your own hands, make sure that the welded ends do not touch others. This will close and burn the entire circuit that you have managed to do.
Schemes for a softer glow
So that the LED lamp does not irritate the eyes with a blink, you need to add a few details to the assembly scheme. In general, the current converter consists of:
- diode bridge;
- 400 nF and 10 microfarad capacitors;
- 100 and 230 ohm resistors.
To protect against voltage surges, a resistor of 100 ohms is first placed, and 400 nF capacitor soldered. In the previous version, they are installed at different ends of the entrance. After the capacitor after the diode bridge, another 230 Ohm resistor is installed. Behind him is a consistent chain of LEDs (+).
The simplest scheme for those who want to do everything with their own hands consists of two 12 k resistors and two chains with the same number of LED elements solder the lamps connected in series with different directionality. On the R 1 side, one strip is soldered to the cathode, the second to the anode. The other layering to R2 is the opposite.
This creates a softer glow of the lamps, since the LED elements are alternately lit and the flash of the flashes to the eyes is almost imperceptible. Such lamps can even be used as local lighting when working at a table, thus replacing an ordinary table lamp.
Specialists who have done more than one lamp with their own hands, recommend collecting at least 20 LEDs for this circuit. Often used 40. It provides good lighting and the circuit is assembled easily. For more, it is difficult to produce high-quality soldering of the circuit without hitting the adjacent contacts. Yes, and collect it in the case is difficult.
You can make the lamp of 4 or 6 more powerful LEDs. To calculate the schemes use a special calculator, which can be found on the Internet.
When creating various schemes with their own hands from LED devices and others, you can use to calculate online calculator correctly. It is easy to find on sites that are devoted to electrical appliances and a description of how to make them. Its use will greatly simplify the process of calculating the current, resistance and will allow you to check the correct selection of parts.
LED lamp housings
For convenient inclusion of the LED lamp, which was made by hand, in ordinary lighting devices, use:
- sockets of ordinary incandescent bulbs;
- housing from energy-saving lamps;
- halogen lamps;
- homemade fixtures.
Each specialist, making an LED lamp with his own hands, chooses the most suitable option. The base allows you to twist the lamp into a conventional cartridge and at the same time provides heat transfer. Overheating, the LED lamp fails faster.
Socket with incandescent bulbs
Carefully separate the glass flask and extract the helix. Then the circuit is placed inside the base and the lamps are mounted on top of the board. The lack of such a base is unsightly and poorly insulated.
Energy Saving Lamp Housing
The most convenient and practical option to create your own LED lamp. Methods of mounting diodes may be different. Initially, a burnt lamp is carefully disassembled. Then the converter board is removed from it. Further, there are options.
Can be placed in the cap holes that are made under glass flasks. This is in the lamp version with three arc-shaped light elements. The circuit is located inside the capproviding heat transfer. The LEDs are inserted into the already finished holes and mounted in them.
Finished board with LEDs can be placed in the base with a simple plastic cap from the bottle with water. You can use a circle made by yourself and drill holes in it for diodes. As a result, it is convenient to use and aesthetic appearance.
Some craftsmen, making their own hands, use the body of a halogen lamp. The inconvenience of this option in the absence of the usual opportunity for the base to screw the lamp into the cartridge. This option is more suitable for creating your own indicators and DC lamps.