For any repair in the apartment, private house or cottage, as well as the breakdown of any element of the wiring you need to know exactly where the wires go. Otherwise, this may lead to additional problems related to the search for electrical cables disguised in the wall or worse, if the tool gets into the live wire. In this case, it is desirable to have a wiring scheme. But as often it happens, it is not at hand, since when buying your own home, no one is interested in this documentation. Therefore, it is advisable to understand the various options for electricity, as in multi-apartment buildings they are standard.
1 Wire Connections
- 1.1 Video: diagram of the cable in the house
2 How wiring is done
- 2.1 Standard layout
- 2.2 Video: electrical wiring diagram in the apartment
- 3 Basic requirements for electrical circuits
4 How to make a wire wiring do it yourself
- 4.1 Video: electrical installation
5 What wires to choose
- 5.1 Video: how to choose the right cable section
A person who understands what awaits him in the process of independently drawing up the wiring diagram or directly performing work on installation of sockets, switches and light sources in their own apartment with their own hands should know the basic ways in which electrical circuits are connected.
- With serial connection circuit elements, each subsequent device follows the previous one without the use of node connections. A vivid example of this can be considered the familiar garland on a Christmas tree, whose LEDs are located on the same cable. However, this scheme has a significant drawback - when one element fails, all other consumers of the circuit are disconnected.
- Parallel wiring does not provide for the connection of electrical elements to each other, and groups them into two nodes. In this case, in the event of a breakdown of any element, all other consumers remain in working condition.
- In the mixed method, one section of the chain includes several options for connecting elements both in series and in parallel.
If the landlord absolutely does not understand the field of arranging electrical circuits, then it is better to entrust all the installation work in the apartment to a professional electricians, who in a short time will make a clear plan that includes even the smallest details, which will save on the purchase of consumables materials.
Video: diagram of the cable in the house
How wiring is done
The choice of the scheme should occur with full awareness of the case. In the first place - this is due to the safety rules for using electrical circuits. Today there are three basic layout options.
- The most popular method of wiring is to connect all the constituent elements of the network using junction boxes. This scheme involves the installation of the shield on the landing in a specially equipped niche, and not in a residential area. In the dashboard have a control device consumed electricity and a few packs. The input of electricity into the apartment is done through a cable, the wiring of which into the rooms is carried out with the help of distribution boxes.
- The “Star” layout scheme implies that each element is connected by a separate line connected directly to the dashboard via an automatic toggle switch. With such a wiring significantly increases the consumption of wires, physical work and the cost of the project as a whole. But after evaluating all the advantages and disadvantages, it becomes clear that all costs are justified, since the system provides the ability to fully control each consumer separately.
- Similar to the previous wiring layout is the “Flex” circuit. In this version there is only one distinctive feature which consists in connecting several consumers to one cable. This reduces the amount of installation work and consumables, which leads to a reduction in the cost of the project.
In most cases, the wiring plan involves a combination of several ways of laying cables. In this case, it is very important to think over everything to the smallest detail in order to ultimately achieve maximum efficiency and safety of the electrical circuit.
All ideas on the arrangement of electrical circuits before the start of installation work are preferably embodied in a detailed scheme laid out on a sheet of paper. It is important to take into account the layout of each individual room, which will allow you to calculate the number of distribution groups and elements of the power grid. For convenience, each group can be performed by a separate scheme.
From practice, it was found that the maximum efficiency of wiring is achieved by combining sources of consumption in several groups, each of which is connected to a separate automatic bagger Thanks to this technical solution, further repair and maintenance of the electrical network is facilitated without the need to de-energize the entire apartment. In addition, the connection of all consumers on one line, perhaps, only if there is a cable with a large cross section, which able to withstand the increased load that occurs when all electrical devices are simultaneously turned on apartment.
When placing the shield directly in the living room, it becomes possible to connect electrical appliances to individual machines. This greatly increases the efficiency and safety of using the electrical network. But, in that case, why such a scheme did not find wide distribution? Everything is quite simple - this option of connecting devices to the AC network greatly increases the cost of the project. Therefore, carry out the separation of consumers in the following groups:
- lighting group of residential premises and corridor;
- electricity supply to the rooms;
- electricity in the kitchen and hallway;
- the supply of light and electricity in the bathroom and bathroom. At the same time, this group implies an increased danger due to constantly high humidity;
- if the kitchen is equipped with an electric stove, then it must also be connected separately.
To ensure maximum safety of electrical installations, each group should be equipped with a special RCD device a protective device that is nothing more than a differential circuit breaker at maximum current values. Also, such protective devices must be equipped with wiring in the bathroom and in the kitchen.
After the final formation of the main groups, it is necessary to distribute in what places will consumers be placed, such as an electric stove, water heater, air conditioning, etc. At the next stage, the installation of switches, distribution boxes, lamps and outlets. In this case, all the elements need to be made in the wiring layout of the wiring, on the basis of which, it is possible to calculate the number of wires.
It is very important that the schematic diagram of the wiring of electricity was made in several copies, one of which must be preserved for the future. After all the details have been taken into account, you can make a detailed finishing drawing in accordance with the exact plan of each room.
All points of installation of electrical elements are put on the diagram in accordance with the generally accepted system of designations and are connected by lines denoting wires. To improve the readability of the circuit, it is desirable to designate different groups of wires in different colors.
The scheme must necessarily include all the dimensions of the premises, the distance from the electrical panel to outlets, switches and light sources, etc. Such a detailed plan will allow in the shortest possible time to carry out high-quality installation work and the calculation of all necessary consumables, which will enable plan out expenses.
Video: electrical wiring diagram in the apartment
Basic requirements for electrical circuits
To properly make the layout of the wiring of the apartment, you should know some important requirements for wiring in residential buildings.
- The bathroom is not supplied with sockets, except the one connected, by means of a transformer for switching on low-voltage appliances, such as an electric shaver.
- Do not connect the grounding outlet to the zero output. It is also strictly forbidden to ground the wiring elements on the battery or plumbing. It is not safe for the tenants of the apartment.
- If a stove is installed in the kitchen and is connected to the AC power supply or other powerful consumers, then the main machine should be of a large rating in order to prevent false alarms.
- Wiring should be done only in the vertical or horizontal direction.
- Changing the orientation of the wiring may lead to the risk of a nail or drill entering the live wire during repair. Also, cable crossing is not allowed.
- It is important that the electrical wires extend 15 cm from the floor or ceiling surface, as well as window and door frames and outside corners of the room.
- The distance from the heating pipes or plumbing should not be less than 3 cm. Wiring to the outlet should be from the bottom, while the switch from the top.
It is desirable that all the sockets and switches, set their own hands, located on the same level. So, for sockets, the acceptable height from the floor is 30 cm, while for switches it’s about 80 cm to 1 m. Naturally, if necessary, these parameters can be changed to the needs of the tenants of the apartment.
How to make a wire wiring do it yourself
To lay electrical wires in an apartment, you must clearly follow the prepared scheme. At the same time, there is a certain sequence of such works with their own hands.
- In the new panel high-rise buildings, special channels are made by builders into which wires are subsequently laid. But, if the stroking was not performed, then you have to do it yourself with the help of a punch.
- Markings are made on the walls under the grooves so that the wire fits the sockets horizontally on one level.
- Grooves, suitable for switches, run vertically from the installation site of the device to the ceiling, not reaching the last one 150 mm. Then the wires are laid in a horizontal groove, laid to the electrical panel. The depth of the strobe should vary from 15 to 20 mm.
- At the place of installation of the outlet is installed podrozetnik.
- Wires are secured in the grooves using alabaster or plastic clamps.
For the right wire connections uses three different methods - using terminals, soldering or twisting, which can be viewed on the video. The first two are considered the most effective in use, since they are considered the most reliable and have a high degree of security, although they are harder to do with your own hands.
Video: electrical installation
What wires to choose
To properly make the wiring in the apartment, you need to buy the appropriate wires. At the same time, copper cable is considered the best when wiring for the simple reason that it has maximum flexibility, is less fragile and has high current conductivity. It is also more convenient to mount it in contrast to the analogue of aluminum.
In apartments, in most cases, they lay wires with two or three conductors with a cross section of 2.5–3 square mm for sockets and 1.5 for switches and lamps. For more powerful consumers, a separate line is laid with wires over 3 mm square, which will allow them not to overheat.
The wiring diagram may well be drawn up and implemented independently. But the responsibility for the quality of its work and the safety of residents will lie on the person who carried out the installation work. Therefore, at least minimal knowledge in this area is welcome.