Modern society seeks to save on all types of energy, especially electricity. This is due to the constant increase in pay for the light. Therefore, fluorescent lamps are very strongly included in people's lives and are actively used.
- 1 What are fluorescent lamps
- 2 The principle of operation of the fluorescent lamp
- 3 How to connect a lighting device
- 4 Fluorescent lamp breakage, repair and replacement
- 5 How does the throttle, the main signs of breakage
- 6 The main problems in the starter
What are fluorescent lamps
The lamp itself consists of a glass bulb, which can be of various shapes and diameters. According to their structure and appearance, they are divided:
- compact with base E 14 and E 27;
- straight lines.
Regardless of the appearance, each of the fluorescent lamps has electrodes inside, a special luminescent coating, injected inert gas with mercury vapor. Due to the fact that the electrodes are heated, there is a periodic ignition of an inert gas, so the phosphor glows. Considering that the spirals can overheat and burn during short heating, these devices use a starter for fluorescent lamps. It is worth noting the fact that the spirals in daylight illuminators are small, they do not fit the standard voltage, so special devices are installed - chokes, whose task is to limit the nominal values
The principle of operation of the fluorescent lamp
When the illuminator connects to the network, an automatic 220 V mains supply on the circuit, then it should be on the starter. Since the contacts are still open, the full voltage through the device does not go, but hits the choke, where it oscillates around zero. This voltage is enough to cause the ignition of the discharge in the light bulb. As soon as the bimetallic electrode of the starter is heated, it is bent and the electrical circuit closes, the filament in fluorescent lamp light up. This leads to the launch of the lamp itself.
As electrodes in day lamps installed tungsten filament. They are necessarily applied a special coating of protective paste. After some time, this paste burns, which causes the filament to burn out. If at least one of the filaments blows, the illuminator will fail and will not ignite.
How to connect a lighting device
There are schemes for connecting fluorescent lamps. They are very simple and do not cause difficulties even for an inexperienced person. For one light source, it is enough to apply voltage to the assembled circuit through the terminals. It will follow the choke, then, on the first helix. Then, the starter turns on, it reacts to the incoming current, and passes it further to the second spiral connected to the terminal.
Some specialists recommend installing capacitorsthat perform the function of a network filter. It helps reduce power consumption, as it partially quenches the power generated by the choke.
If you need to install several daylight devices, the wiring diagrams will change slightly. All lamps will be connected in series. Several starters will be used for each source separately. If you want to install two lamps on one choke, then you need to read the rated power, which is indicated on the housing. If the power of the choke is 40 W, then only two devices with a power of 20 W are connected to it.
Developed lamp connection diagrams without using a starter. They are replaced by electronic ballast devices. In this embodiment, the device daylight turns on instantly, there is no blinking, as when turning on the starter.
To plug electronic ballasts easy. To do this, just read the instructions, which is located on the instrument. Such instructions specify the wiring diagram, which lamp contacts should be connected to the corresponding terminals. It is worth noting that many experts believe that it is this method that has great advantages:
- you do not need the presence of additional elements to control and connect the starter;
- lamp operation without a starter is longer as it is excluded setting connecting wires of the device and a starter which often and quickly fail.
It should be noted that the connection of incandescent lamps does not cause much difficulty, since all the necessary elements of the device and the schemes of their assembly are included with the device. You do not need to buy something extra and invent, or look for a device assembly scheme.
Fluorescent lamp breakage, repair and replacement
As soon as you find problems with the device, you need to find out the causes of the malfunction, and decide whether you need a complete replacement of the lamp, or just put a new element. The most common problems are problems in the starter or throttle. When the lamp is turned on only on one side when turned on, it is necessary to turn it over so that the input of the non-luminous part becomes the opposite place. In the case when the lamp continues to shine the same way, then it can be thrown away - it is faulty.
Often there are problems when the two ends of the lamp are shining, and the whole of it does not light up. This may indicate a malfunction of the starter, wiring or cartridge. Begin testing with a starter. If it is in good condition, then start working with the wiring, perhaps there are short circuits in it.
If the lamp lights up with a dim light when turned on, and after a few minutes it starts to pulsate and goes out altogether, this indicates about getting into the air flask. In this case, the device must be replaced.
How does the throttle, the main signs of breakage
Some lamps are abruptly and instantly lit, but after a few hours of work, the edges of the light source darken. Such work should immediately pay attention. This indicates a rapid failure of the device. The cause of the breakdown will be a problem in the operation of the choke: the starting and operating current have indicators exceeding the norm. To accurately diagnose the problem is enough use a voltmeterand check the starting and operating current. Most often, experts find faults in several cathodes.
Some users observe that a snake snakes periodically in a fluorescent lamp. This also indicates problems in the throttle. The source receives an electrical voltage, but the discharge inside is uneven. It is also sufficient to check the starting and operating voltage, and if an excess is detected, replace the choke with a new one.
The main problems in the starter
When the owner of the fluorescent lamp observes a picture of a constantly or periodically extinguishing device, this indicates problems in the operation of the starter and the lamp. For accurate troubleshooting, you need to check incoming voltage in the device. If its parameters are much higher, then it is enough to replace only the lamp. Be sure to measure the voltage in the starter. If it is below normal, then the starter must be replaced.
If the fluorescent lamp begins to function dimly, this is a sign of a sharp decrease in the current inside to a critical level. This indicates a choke failure. When you measured the voltage in it and made sure that there are no reasons for incorrect operation, then perhaps your light source served its time, the amount of mercury inside decreased to a minimum. Replace the bulb itself.
If a spiral burns in the lampsthen this indicates breakage or damage to the throttle. Most often these are problems or insulation wear. As soon as the daylight source stops working normally, it is necessary to immediately disconnect it from the electricity and find the causes of the breakdown. Do not repeatedly try to turn on the device, as the breakdown of one element leads to problems in operation or failure of other parts of the device.
It is important to understand the main thing - when installing a fluorescent lamp, the wiring diagrams need to be operated correctly. Only in this case there will be no problems and the device will function efficiently.