To make a wind generator with a power up to 1 kW, there is no need to purchase special equipment. This problem is easy to solve, having in stock asynchronous motor. Moreover, this power will be quite enough to create conditions for the work of individual household appliances and connect street lighting in the garden in the country.
If done wind turbine with your own hands, then you will have a free source of energy that you can use on your own. Any home master is able to make independently a wind generator based on an asynchronous motor.
- 1 What does a generator consist of?
- 2 Principle of operation
- 3 Materials and tools
- 4 Characteristics and installation of the generator
- 5 Installation Features
- 6 How to make your own asynchronous generator?
What does a generator consist of?
The generator set, which will generate electricity, provides the following basic elements:
- a rotor that is equipped with blades, a wind turbine, and also a tail, which allows structures against the wind to be positioned;
- mast, which may or may not have stretching necessary to install the rotor. Most often, the height of the masts is about 3-7 m;
- batteries, which are usually lead acid starter batteries;
- AC alternator, the functions of which will be performed by an asynchronous motor;
- a device that allows you to monitor the process of charging the battery;
- a converter, for operation of which a conventional power grid is used, having a power of about 600-1500 W;
- lightning protection system (grounding).
Principle of operation
Operation of improvised wind turbines carried out by analogy with wind generator installationsthat are used in industry. The main goal is to generate an alternating voltage, for which kinetic energy is transformed into electrical energy. The wind drives a rotary-type wind wheel, as a result of which the received energy flows from it to the generator. Moreover, the role of the latter is usually performed by an asynchronous motor.
As a result of the creation of a current generator, the latter enters the battery, which is equipped with a module and a charge controller. From there it is sent to a DC voltage inverter, the source of which is the electrical grid. As a result manages to create alternating voltagewhose characteristics are suitable for domestic use (220 V 50 Hz).
A controller is used to transform AC voltage into DC voltage. It is with its help that the batteries are charged. In some cases, inverters are able to perform the functions of an uninterruptible power supply. In other words, in case of problems with the supply of electricity, they can use batteries or generators as a power source for household devices.
Materials and tools
To make a wind generator, enough to have an asynchronous motorwhich will have to be redone. At the same time will have to stock up a number of materials:
- steel pipe, the minimum diameter of which should be 7 cm, used as a material for the mast;
- PVC pipe or metal from which the blades will be made. An alternative to them may be a wooden board, a profile made of fiberglass, which is coated with epoxy or ready-made blades;
- concrete will serve as support material, although it can be replaced with wood and metal.
- drill with drill set;
- handsaw, tape measure, adjustable spanner and gas wrench;
- steel frame, with the help of which the blades will be mounted and the generator with a swivel unit;
- steel sheet, which will serve as material for the tail;
- the tool with which the necessary parts will be made;
- crutches and collars - they will be used to install stretch marks;
- metal cable, the cross section of which should be 12 mm - on its basis and stretching will be made.
Characteristics and installation of the generator
The generator has the following characteristics:
- minimum installation capacity is 1.32 kV;
- use in the design of neodymium magnets. They are needed to obtain the necessary electromagnetic electromotive force. Instead of them steel sleeve may be used for magnets placed on the rotor;
- the location of the magnets on the rotor must comply with the established scheme. Here it is meant that the pole alternation NS must be observed;
- before installing the magnets in its place, the rotor must be machined to a depth corresponding to the thickness of the magnets;
- if you plan to place magnets on the rotor, in some cases you can do without rewinding the winding. But still, the use of a winding containing a wire of increased thickness is beneficial, since it allows an improvement in technical parameters. The greatest effect is demonstrated by the rewinding of the stator, which has 6 poles, which provides for a wire with a thickness of not more than 1.2 mm and with a maximum of 24 turns on the coils.
Most often, installing the generator with your own hands is performed using a three-bladed propeller, reaching in diameter of about 2 m. The decision to increase the number of blades or their length does not lead to an improvement in workers characteristics. Regardless of the option chosen regarding the configuration, size and shape of the blades, you should first carry out preliminary calculations.
During self-installation, you need to pay attention to such a parameter as the soil condition of the site where the support and stretch marks will be placed. The mast is installed by digging a pit with a depth of no more than 0.5 m, which must be filled with concrete.
Network connection carried out in a strictly defined order: The first batteries are connected, and the wind generator itself follows them.
The rotation of the wind generator installation can be carried out in a horizontal or vertical plane. In this case, the choice is usually stopped on a vertical plane, which is associated with structural performance. Darya and Savonius models can be used as rotors.
The design of the installation should use sealing gaskets or cap. With this solution, the generator will not harm the moisture.
To accommodate the mast and support, an open space must be chosen. Suitable for a mast is 15 m high. At the same time masts are most commonwhose height does not exceed 5-7 m.
Optimally, if a self-made wind generator performs the functions of a backup power source.
These installations have restrictions on use, since their operation is possible only in those regions where the wind speed reaches about 7-8 m / s.
Before you start creating a windmill with your own hands, perform accurate calculations. In some cases it is difficult to handle the nodes of an asynchronous motor;
A windmill cannot be created without electrical modules, as well as a series of experiments.
How to make your own asynchronous generator?
Although, always you can purchase a ready-made asynchronous generator, you can go a different way and save money by making it yourself. Difficulties here will not arise. The only thing to do is to prepare the necessary tools.
- One of the features of the generator is that it should rotate with greater speedthan the engine. This can be achieved in the following way. After starting it is necessary to find out the speed of the engine. A tachogenerator or a tachometer will help us in this task.
- Having determined the above parameter, add 10% to the value. If, for example, its torque is 1200 rpm, then for the generator it will be equal to 1320 rpm.
- To make an electric generator based on an induction motor, you need to find a suitable capacitor for capacitors. Moreover, it should be remembered that all Capacitors should not differ in their phases from each other.
- It is recommended to use a medium size container. If it is too large, it will lead to the heating of the asynchronous motor.
- For assembly should use capacitorsthat can guarantee the desired speed of rotation. Their installation should be taken very seriously. It is recommended to protect them using special insulating materials.
These are all operations that must be performed when arranging a generator based on an engine. Then you can proceed to its installation. Keep in mind that when using a device equipped with a squirrel-cage rotor, you will receive a high voltage current. For this reason, in order to achieve a value of 220 V, you will need a step-down transformer.