Before starting a major overhaul or building construction, it is important to think in advance about the placement of lighting fixtures, sockets and switches. If there are no problems with this issue, then you need to figure out how to connect all the wires and devices according to the diagram so that everything works correctly.
But before starting work related to electricity, you need to worry about safety. Before installation, you must de-energize the repaired room, for which you must move the machine in the switchboard to the lower position. This is necessary so that no one is shocked.
- 1 Features of the installation work
- 2 What may need to connect?
- 3 Choosing a switch for connecting a light bulb
- 4 Wiring the switch from the outlet
- 5 Marking of places for installation of electrical devices
- 6 How to connect a switch from the outlet
Features of the installation work
Installation and connection of electrical devices such as sockets, switches or light sources are performed only if the repair space is completely de-energized. Wherein
- Wiring according to the scheme should be laid only in straight lines, both vertically and horizontally.
- If the room is made of wood, then the wires are laid on the walls. There should be no direct contact between the electrical wiring and the surface of the walls. Installation takes place on special insulators that do not conduct current.
- In buildings made of stone or concrete, electrical wires are hidden in grobes under a layer of plaster.
If we consider the electrical wires, they consist of a current-carrying conductor covered with insulation. There may be several such wires in an electrical wire. In most cases, two and three-core wiring is used. In this case, a single core always creates a continuous circuit without voltage. Such wire is zero. The remaining conductors are phase or working.
What may need to connect?
To quickly and seamlessly connect the switch from the outlet to the light bulb, according to the scheme, you may need certain tools and consumables.
- The device breaks the electrical circuit.
- Electrical wires corresponding to the wiring, laid, throughout the structure - copper or aluminum.
- A junction box in which the wires are connected. Thanks to the boxes, all connections can be made qualitatively, which reduces the risks of short circuits during the operation of electrical devices.
- Indicator screwdriver with LED. Such a device is useful for determining the phase of the mains.
- Side cutters for cutting wiring into pieces and connecting wires with twists.
- Insulation tape for insulating twists.
- Fastening elements for wiring in wooden buildings. Special clamps will allow to fix the corrugation on a wooden wall. But the simplest and cheapest mount is considered to be a metal strip of tin can with a nail for fixing.
- Podozetniki designed for high-quality installation of outlets or switches. Structurally, such a product resembles a glass of a polymeric material that does not conduct electrical current.
And finally need a punch. It is necessary for the opening of the plaster or, more simply, shtabirovaniya walls. If the switch is installed at a new location, then a milling cutter will be needed to drill a hole for the bottom plate. Thanks to such a drill bit, it will not be difficult to equip a socket for installing an outlet or switch.
Choosing a switch for connecting a light bulb
Structurally, any switch consists of a case in which the current-taking part of the device and an electrical circuit breaker are located. The most common is considered key switch. At the same time, for convenience, they often install several keys in one case. To date, all switches can be divided into the following types:
- keyboard switch design;
- circuit breaker;
- touch device;
- pulse circuit breakers.
It should be noted that to understand how to connect each device separately does not make much sense, since they all have the general scheme used when mounting the single-button switch to the light bulb from sockets. Therefore, it is the device of such a device that will be considered in more detail.
A block of such devices It is equipped with several contacts to connect the wires and a key to break the electrical circuit. However, most devices are equipped with a special fastening element. Usually these are two metal plates, the expansion of which is regulated by means of ordinary screws.
Wiring the switch from the outlet
Almost all switches can be connected according to a generalized scheme to a light source - an electric light bulb. At the same time, regardless of the design of the electrical circuit breaker, its connection always occurs in the phase break, which is taken from the socket. That is a switch breaks the working conductor of electrical wiring.
- Wires from a socket fed from a common power grid, wires laid from switch and wiring, derived from the bulb holder, where they will be connected to the AC network current.
- One wire going from the cartridge must be connected to the zero core, and the free end with the wiring, laid to the switch.
- The second leg of the wiring is connected to the outlet phase. Due to this, the bulb together with the cartridge is connected to the phase through an electric breaker.
When the switch is in the on state according to the diagram, the load will be applied to the lamp holder, and when the device is turned off, the electricity supply is interrupted.
Marking of places for installation of electrical devices
Before you start connecting, you need to mark up locations of the switch, which is better to install closer to the outlet and electrical wiring on the walls and ceiling where the lighting fixture will be mounted. Most often, the switch is fixed near the entrance door to the room. If this is a passage room, the switch is installed directly next to the doorway.
After marking the place to install the switch straight line is drawn up towards the ceiling. At this point, you must install the distribution box. On the ceiling surface is determined by the center of the room. In the marked place will be connected to the light bulb. From the cartridge is a straight line to the wall. After that, the length of the drawn lines is measured, taking into account the distance from the outlet, and the wire with a margin is cut into segments.
How to connect a switch from the outlet
Installation work begins with the direct installation of an electrical breaker in the vicinity of the outlet. If he mounted on a wooden wall, then an insulating plate made of plastic or other non-conductive material is installed, if the building is stone, the switch is mounted in a power socket. But since most buildings are brick or concrete, all work is carried out in accordance with a specific plan.
- Mounted distribution box. Further, you can connect to the switch wire that is hidden in the grooves.
- A special block with two current-receiving contacts is installed on the ceiling surface. In the future, a cartridge with wires is connected to the block.
- The wire that runs along the ceiling is laid in the grooves against the wall, where the switch is located and inserted into the junction box.
- Another piece of wiring goes from the box directly to the switch.
- A cartridge with an electric light bulb is connected to the terminal block on the ceiling. In most cases, such pads have a screw connector. The ends of the exposed wires are inserted into the terminals and secured with a screw.
- Further twisted according to the scheme all the ends of the wiring in the junction box. To twist it turned out reliable, it is clamped with pliers.
- The wiring connections are insulated with special tape.
- The electricity supply is turned off, and the ends coming from the outlet are revealed.
- The electricity supply is resumed and the phase conductor in the outlet is detected. To do this, the indicator is touched alternately to the wires and when it hits the phase, the LED on the screwdriver lights up.
- The outlet phase is marked in any convenient way, and the room is de-energized again.
- All wires from the switch and the light bulb, as well as those laid from the socket, are brought into the distribution box of the wiring.
- One core from the cartridge with a light bulb must be connected to the neutral wire, and the second is connected to either end of the wiring coming from the switch. Connecting the free vein from the switch is made with the phase coming from the outlet.
All twist carefully crimped with pliers and insulated with electrical tape. Electricity is supplied and it is checked how the connection was made. If the light source lights up, then all the boxes are closed and the strokes are sealed. Otherwise, you need to look for bad contact in the twist.