Residential buildings made of wood - one of the most ancient architectural structures. But even nowadays, when the range of building materials strikes the human imagination, most of the lucky owners of a country site prefer to use wood with ecological qualities and natural beauty for construction, which cannot be matched by any finishing material.
Yes, and the average residents of cities in the possession of which there is a small suburban area, prefer the construction of simple wooden buildings. At the same time, whether it is a wooden shed or a two-story cottage, they are necessarily equipped with electrical power. Therefore, it is very important to understand how to set up and connect electrical wiring in a wooden house so that its use does not endanger the life of a person and the safety of his property.
- 1 Requirements for wiring in wooden buildings
- 2 Features of the input of electricity in the house of wood
- 3 Laying wires from entering the house to the electrical panel
- 4 Installation of distribution boards
- 5 Open wiring in a wooden house
- 6 Hidden electrical wiring in a wooden house
- 7 Features of the installation of electrical appliances
Requirements for wiring in wooden buildings
To begin with, everyone who wants to engage in self-supplying electricity to a wooden house must understand that knowledge of how to distinguish a neutral wire from a phase analog or connect an outlet with a switch is far from enough First of all - it is due to increased safety requirements the use of electrical appliances in buildings made of wood.
It is better to entrust all work to qualified electricians. But to be aware of the basic rules of how to lay electrical wiring in a wooden house every homeowner needs, even for the simple reason that it will allow to evaluate the work of specialists. So, what rules apply to electrical wiring in wooden residential buildings?
- It is important to completely eliminate or minimize the possibility of electric cables igniting, for prevent the transfer of an open source of fire to the wooden parts of the house when a short circuit occurs in an electrical chains.
- Main indicators and characteristics used in the wiring of cables must exactly comply with the rules and regulations and have an adequate power reserve that can withstand peak loads. In no case should there be any manifestation of heating of the lead wire or terminal connection.
- The technical condition of electrical wires should not allow even the slightest risk of electric shock to the residents of the house or animals.
The question of the aesthetic component in the conditions of wooden houses should be relegated to the background. To date, there are many solutions to this problem. But in no case can we neglect the safety rules to improve the external characteristics of the structure. Such actions may lead to irreversible consequences.
Features of the input of electricity in the house of wood
The most dangerous part of electrical wiring is considered to be the entry of wires through a wall of an attic made of wood. There is a mistaken opinion among folk craftsmen that a piece of rubber hose is enough to ensure safe cable entry into the house. But the use of such material is not applicableas the composition of the rubber product includes soot, which is a carbon that conducts electricity well.
Therefore, in the process of aging of the rubber hose, bridges may appear, allowing electricity with fairly high specific resistance values. Because of this, heating of the cable occurs in local areas, which can lead to burning of dry wood.
If the main goal of the owner of the wooden house is the complete reconstruction of the electrical wiring and bringing the latter into proper condition, then you need to start upgrading by inserting the electrical cable into building. Wherein specialists consider two main methods how to get the power cable in a wooden building:
- The laying of the electric power cable under the ground is most reliable in terms of security, since the wires are hidden from the influence of external factors. But in terms of cost, this option is too expensive and implies excavation. According to the rules of laying underground wiring, the depth of the trench should be at least 80 cm.
- Air wiring, implies work on an electric pole, which is strictly prohibited to be carried out without the necessary tolerance. Only qualified electricians can do this.
The section of the electrical line from the high-voltage column to the wooden structure must be made of wires with a cross section of more than 16 mm. Optimal are self-supporting aluminum wireswith high quality insulation. The service life of such a cable should be 25 years or more.
Naturally, the input of such a line into the room is not allowed. If you follow the rules, laying electrical wires with current-carrying parts of aluminum on the combustible constructive elements of the house is strictly prohibited. Therefore, in the buildings of wood can be laid only the conductors of copper.
The electrical cable must be connected outside the house. To do this, use special clips, thanks to which quality contact is providedwhich is not oxidized and does not spark. The sections of electrical wiring passing through wooden walls or floors between floors must be enclosed in metal shells. With this extra precaution, the following goals are achieved:
- the electric cable will be protected from mechanical damage caused by the displacement of the house structure due to shrinkage or vibration of the soil;
- refractory metal, which reliably protects a wooden surface from ignition in a short circuit situation, leading to heating and further ignition of electrical wiring;
- electrical wiring in remote and unobtrusive places will be reliably protected from small pests - rats and mice.
If we consider the thickness of the pipe walls, then it is regulated by the current rules. In case it is necessary to lay the wires, the cross section of which does not exceed 4 mm, a pipe with 2.8 mm walls, and in case of using a more powerful cable, thick-walled protection is applied up to 10 mm it will not allow the burning of the metal sleeve during a short circuit. This rule applies to all wiring areas in a wooden house.
Laying wires from entering the house to the electrical panel
Another important part of the electrical wiring of wooden houses is the gap from the input to the distribution panel of the in-house electrical system. The particular specificity of this section is considered to be the insecurity of the latter from overload using automatic machines. And given that it is laid in the attic or utility room, then the risk of fire in the event of a short circuit increases greatly, as relying on automatic protection of the substation is not worth it. Therefore, to solve the problem, use two cardinal ways.
- The cable along the entire length is in a pipe made of metal, with the parameters that comply with the established rules. But this method is applicable at short intervals of the mains with a length of up to 3 m.
- A more acceptable method is to install a machine placed in a hermetic box just before entering the line in a wooden room. The threshold of operation of such a device must be one level higher than the main automaton placed in a switchgear.
Another solution to the problem is to place the machines and the electric meter on the outer wall outside the wooden house in a separate protected box. Naturally, this option is the most reliable, although inconvenient for the owners of living space.
Installation of distribution boards
Electrical cable input into a wooden house directly without additional branches enters the distribution box, which consists of the following elements:
- a box of plastic or metal with places for placement of the device, control of electricity consumed and automatic protective devices;
- electric meter with appropriate sealing;
- two-pole or three-pole automatic protection device of the main input cable;
- automatic circuit breakers for house wiring in a wooden house;
- it is very convenient if garage and yard lighting is allocated in a separate zone, as well as power supply of utility rooms.
Calculation of the power of the machine for each individual zone is performed individually. The basic rule that governs this is protection trips when overload occurs in a weak area of house wiring. At the same time, the optimally selected nominal ensures maximum safety. You should not get involved in savings when purchasing the hardware of the distribution system, because the safety of people depends on it.
Open wiring in a wooden house
If we consider the ways of distributing electrical wiring in a wooden house, then the safest way is to include an open wiring option. Plus, such work will cost the homeowner much cheaper. Electrical cables are laid on the inner walls and ceiling of the room. For aesthetic masking of wires they can be decorated in retrostyle or placed in a decorative plastic box.
Electric cable is placed in a self-extinguishing channel. At the same time in hardware stores you can find a product that matches the color in accordance with the overall style of construction. This box is popular in log houses and buildings, sheathed with clapboard made of wood with smooth wall surfaces.
The use of braided cables will give electrical wiring an aged look in retrostyle. Wires resemble twisted cords attached to a wooden wall through a ceramic insulator. This method is considered fairly safe for the simple reason that cable has high quality double insulation and does not contact directly with wooden surfaces. Plus, this type of wire will emphasize the overall styling of the building.
Hidden electrical wiring in a wooden house
If we consider the hidden wiring in a wooden house, then its installation is very time consuming and in the case of the need to upgrade or repair electrical cables makes the procedure costly and uncomfortable. But despite this, most owners of wooden country houses prefer the hidden method of installation of electrical cables.
Homeowners of wooden buildings do not want to spoil the look of home decoration distribution panels and wires. Bookmark hidden electrical wiring begins at the design stage of the building. In this case, for security purposes, the wires are placed in a pipe of metal or galvanized, which must be painted. To lift cable to the outlet or the switch is equipped with a special opening protected from fire.
Installation of electrical networks in wooden buildings in a covert way should be carried out only in accordance with the norms and rules for electrical work and using special materials to protect against the fire. Cables passing through the ceiling of the building necessarily fit in a metal sleeve or pipe from non-flammable plastic.
Also, the hidden wiring method can be placed in grounded metal pipes. Log buildings often sit down, which must be considered, avoiding the impact of logs on wires or metal sleeves. For wiring cables through the walls using special sleeves made of metal. But due to the fact that the open and closed methods of laying wires in a wooden house have their advantages and disadvantages, they most often combine them.
Features of the installation of electrical appliances
After studying the layout of electrical wiring in a wooden building and marking the cable lines you can proceed to the installation of electrical switchgear - sockets, lamps and switches. In this case, the fastening of all electrical components should be carried out only on a previously prepared metal platform fixed on a wooden surface. Only due to the metal protection it is possible to ensure an adequate level of fire safety in a wood house. This rule applies to distribution boxes.
The problem of many fans of self-repair when installing electrical wiring is the failure to comply with the norms and requirements of fire safety in wooden buildings. In no case do not use standard wires and electrical appliances, as it is contrary to safety regulations.
Electrical wiring in wooden buildings should be carried out only taking into account all recommendations, what will allow to guarantee durability and efficiency of the performed works, and also safety of all residents houses.