Any car owner has to face a battery failure sooner or later. Often the cause of failure is the discharge of the battery. To restore the voltage of the battery, there are special devices, and they are called charging and starting-charging devices. Every car owner will certainly need such a useful electrical appliance.
Now there is a huge selection of different devices for recharging the battery. To choose the most optimal model, you need to know how to choose the right charger for the battery in the car.
Charging and starting-charging devices are needed to charge batteries of various capacities. What is the difference between these two devices? Starting-up and charging devices can not only recharge a dead battery, but also start the engine if necessary, for example, during the cold season. Battery chargers are designed for recharging only and cannot help the engine start. They differ in the strength of their current and voltage.
1 Why do I need a charger
- 1.1 Variety Chargers
- 1.2 The main qualities of the charger
2 How to choose a charger
- 2.1 Selection and operation
- 2.2 Charge car battery
3 How to choose a starter charger
- 3.1 Varieties of starting and charging devices
- 3.2 Selecting a starting device for the intended purpose
- 3.3 Selection by technical criteria
- 3.4 Choice by equipment
Why do I need a charger
The standard problem that any car owner has ever encountered in a cold, long, dark, dark, snowy winter is a dead battery in a car. Most often, this situation occurs if the battery power is for some reason not enough to turn the starter.
Often this circumstance is caused by the fact that the generator not fully charged car battery for the reason that often need to heat the interior of the car, include parking lights, headlights and lighting. In addition, at a temperature below zero, the oil thickens, the output of the car battery decreases, therefore the risk of battery discharge at the most unnecessary moment becomes rather large. When the battery is more than 3 years old, the most reliable option to protect yourself from this is to purchase a battery charger.
Let's warn the logical question of the motorist - why charging on a car battery if the generator is working. Right. The generator is working. But, putting additional load on the onboard system, we forget that the generator does not cope with all the devices and in this case electricity starts to deal with the battery. This leads to a gradual discharge of the battery.
It also happens that some forget to turn off at night, or even on weekends, car acoustics or dimensions. And the next day the car will not start. This has happened to many. In this case, you will need a battery charger.
Knowledge of information on existing battery today will give you the opportunity to navigate the question of what device to choose to charge the car battery.
- Alkaline batteries are lithium ion (LiOn), nickel metal hydride (NiMh) and nickel cadmium (NiCd). The most unfortunate of them is the latest batteries, because it requires a full discharge of the battery before charging. The so-called “memory” effect makes it rather uncomfortable. A purchased alkaline battery needs a discharge / charge cycle three times.
- Lead battery - also called acid. These batteries are quite good at systematic recharging. They are advised to charge more often.
Uniform rule for any kinds of joint stock bank - the battery must be fully charged, that is, to "stop".
The main qualities of the charger
All chargers for batteries have a single principle of operation: they must reduce the mains voltage to the nominal value of the battery, after rectifying the current and ensure the automation of battery charging. That is, ideally: the driver must fasten the charging terminals, plug in and go to sleep in good faith.
Ways to charge the battery:
- Constant pressure. The disadvantages of this method include a very vigorous charging process at first, and weakly flowing at the end.
- D.C. Charging is pretty fast, this is an advantage. The disadvantage is that this method, due to the specifics of the charger, leads to a rapid "aging" of the battery.
- Combined. It is the most optimal, and by and large, all modern chargers work in this way.
How to choose a charger
The first thing to do before you go to buy a battery charger is to carefully read the manual for the on-board network and the battery. After, already in the store, examine the instructions on the tactical and technical parameters of the selected device.
Tip: with the rapid development of counterfeit products, especially from China, still pay attention to the domestic manufacturer. Here you obviously win.
The choice of car charging do with a certain margin on the current in a big way, so that the device does not work at the maximum. Or the situation may change, and you will need to recharge the battery with a larger capacity.
The choice of charging for the battery is best stopped on an automatic, which provides a combined charge. The choice of the display method is personally to your taste. Discrete (light-emitting diodes) is cheaper, but not as accurate, but sufficient for an ordinary car enthusiast. Instrument display more precisely and, accordingly, more expensive. Surprisingly, the domestic manufacturer of car chargers produces very high-quality models, and they successfully compete with European counterparts.
The choice of the charger must be approached thoroughly and scrupulously, that is, by studying the operating manual and its characteristics. The device must be assembled at the factory, have instructions and clearly defined characteristics. In addition, the charger must necessarily comply with all fire and electrical safety regulations.
We advise you to buy automatic car chargers, they provide the best charging effect on the combined principle. As such, the controls of the apparatus are not present, except for the potentiometer, it sets the initial current.
Selection and operation
Charging for a battery is not a toy. In urban driving conditions, as well as frequent traffic jams, when a car generator does not give half of the required amperage, battery is often uncharged. To start a car, it then starts, but this is only in summer time or while it is still new; after a while, undercharging will progress. Therefore, periodically it will be useful to recharge the battery.
What to buy a charger? We will answer right away, all Chinese car chargers, in which there are only light bulbs and no regulators are present, it is advisable not to buy! It is better to buy the simplest in this case, but with an ammeter it is quite enough and 5 amperes.
Charge car battery
When is the battery considered to be low? For starters, if sutra voltage is 11 volts or less. Density is also low, or the “eye” on the battery has turned white, the car has difficulty starting the engine, or the headlights that run on battery power cause the voltage to drop almost instantly. This is the first urge to recharge.
Suppose you have purchased a charge, at least with an ammeter. What is the current strength set? All advise 0.10 of capacity. But we would advise 0.05. For example:
- We have a battery of 77 A. / h;
- 77A / h0.05 = 3.85 Ampere.
That is, the battery capacity of 77 A. / h. recharge current of no more than four amperes. Voltage set not more than 15 V. As recharging, the voltage will increase, and the current will decrease. Charging lower currents is better than higher currents and, if you are in no hurry, then 2 A. will be quite enough.
When is the battery fully charged? The battery is fully charged when the voltage at the terminals is 14-15 V. and the current from charging has decreased to 0.1-0.3 A. The density of the electrolyte will show a value of 1.25 or more.
Also, periodically it is useful to discharge the battery. As a load, you can choose a regular light bulb. When the voltage drops to 10 V., you can set to charge.
How to choose a starter charger
For owners of cars in which it is not desirable to disconnect the battery from the network, make the charging and starting devices. The specificity of these devices is the ability to recharge the battery without removing the battery from the machine. But this device does not allow to start the engine right there, when its only connected to the car network. Those who need a device that makes it possible not only to charge the battery, but also to start the engine cars immediately after connecting it to the car's network, it is advisable to pick up the starting and charging device.
Varieties of starting and charging devices
Conventionally, the starting and charging devices for a battery are divided into three types, taking into account their capabilities:
Household starting devices mean their use only in garage conditions. As a rule, these devices are designed to work with the car's 12 Volt network. Also, there are such devices that work in the voltage range of 6-12 volts. With the help of these devices, you can charge the battery, as well as start not only the car engine, but also motorcycles, where the voltage of the on-board network is 6 volts.
Professional charge and start devices are designed to operate batteries, where the mains voltage has an indicator of 12 and 24 volts.
These devices are designed for start-up not only of passenger cars, but also of commercial ones, where the rated voltage of the network is 24 volts. Sometimes you can find devices where the output voltage range is 6-24 Volts or even 6-36 Volts.
The original decision will be the purchase of combined starting and charging devices. If you carefully understand, this device is, by and large, an inverter welding unit, with the ability to adjust the switching of the output current, which is suitable for working with the on-board network and the battery car. it multifunction device, but rather difficult in everyday use.
Selecting a starting device for the intended purpose
For a start, what needs to be considered is the location of the machine at a time when it is not in operation. Those motorists who have a garage with electricity supplied to it, fit stationary devices. Modern launchers are small, they will not take up much space in your garage, and if necessary they are always at hand.
If the car remains to “spend the night” somewhere in the parking lot, then it is advisable to choose an autonomous starting device. These devices equipped with built-in battery, and it gives the chance to do charging or start-up of the engine without its connection to the power supply network. But behind this device will require special care, because of the same battery installed.
Then you need to decide which type of starting and charging device is best suited. If the device will be used only with cars, home appliances are quite suitable.
Owners of commercial vehicles need to pay attention to professional devices. Owners of the same machines, which often work in the garage, and at the same time use a welding machine, it is better to pay attention to the combined devices.
Selection by technical criteria
Going to choose the starting-charger device must take into account a number of factors. First of all, with which battery this device will need to work. There are several types of batteries, and any kind has features in charge.
Therefore, before you go shopping, you need to clarify exactly what kind of battery is on the car. If this acid battery, then the starter must be designed to work with this type of battery.
Further, it is necessary to consider what the output voltage must have a starting device. If for operation only with passenger cars, 12 Volt will be enough. But there is one interesting nuance, the starters can be maintained operational for quite some time. And it is quite probable that the car will change over time and a starting device with a nominal output of 24 Volts will be needed. That is, the best option would be to buy a device that can be operated in the range of 6-24 volts, it will not be superfluous.
The next step, which affects the choice of starting device, is the amperage, which will issue the device to start the engine.
To determine this indicator you need to look vehicle technical parameters, namely the amperage that is required to start the car.
If this opportunity is not available for some reason, the approximate value of this indicator can be seen on the battery, which is located on the car.
For example, if the battery indicates that its capacity is 60 A. / h, then the trigger must be selected with the same current output. But again, you need to take into account the fact that the car can change and this value on the car will be more and the starting device with a nominal value of 60 A. / h. can no longer start the engine.
Therefore, it is recommended when buying a starting-charging device to take into account this factor, since the purchased a device that runs all the time at its maximum value will fail much faster due to this operation. Therefore, the current strength of the selected device during startup must be higher than necessary.
In addition to the current to start, you need to take into account device current strengthrequired to charge the battery. If the output current in charging mode is less than what is needed for a battery, then this can lead to a rapid shedding of the battery due to constant undercharging.
Selecting a starting device according to the strength of the charging current is quite simple. Since the optimal indicator of the current for recharging the battery is 10% of the total battery power. That is, when the battery capacity is 60 A. / h, then the amperage that is needed at the output must be 6.0 Amperes. And again, it must be borne in mind that the device should not operate at maximum limits, it needs a certain margin.
Choice by equipment
Then, when the issue with the technical characteristics mentioned above has been resolved, attention should be paid to equipping the LSD.
First of all, it is necessary conduct a visual inspection of the device. The case of the starter must be securely fixed, the operation of switches and toggle switches should not cause any doubts, everything must be carefully fixed.
The consultant can ask for a certificate of quality, find out the warranty period for this device. Since there is a high probability of buying goods of poor quality.
Then, choosing a starting device, you need to get acquainted with the technical equipment. The more additional functions of the device and various means of protection, the naturally better. Since no one is immune from accidentally mixing up the terminals when connecting the device to the car, which will certainly lead to a breakdown of the on-board network of the car.
Conduct visual inspection of clamps and cablesThey are also popularly called "crocodiles", is also an indispensable condition. Wire size should be of high quality. This is important because during the start-up of the motor, the wires transmit a large rated current. And if the cross section of the wires is of poor quality, then they simply melt and need to be replaced.
The clamps on the wires must be made of copper with a thickness of 3 millimeters. If the thickness of the clamps is less, then there is a high probability of their burning in the areas of contact with the terminals.
You also need to check the clamping of the springs that are on the "crocodiles". They must have sufficient force, otherwise contact with the terminals will be weakened, this will lead to burning of the clamps and loss of current.
It should also be noted that the more the starting device for the machine is equipped with additional functions for voltage and current control, the better.
The same is true to mode indicators and additional equipment with sensors that show the rated current, output voltage.
Summing up the line, we can summarize that both devices for charging batteries have a right to exist, they can be used without problems for rechargeable batteries, both domestic and foreign, there is only one small nuance - the charging-starting device is necessary use with terminals disconnected from the on-board network. In addition, the device for charging the battery must be of high quality, no matter what type of device it belongs to.
And at the end... Before using the device to charge the battery, read the operating instructions, make sure that the charger is in line with your battery. Proper and high-quality selected charger will save you from many problems, significantly extend the battery life, thus saving your money.