Industrial electrical equipment requires special attention due to the fact that it contains in its device a variety of different elements, contact with which can seriously injure a person. For this reason, it is important to observe the safety regulations during the operation of electrical equipment.
- 1 Electric shock
2 Consequences of defeat
- 2.1 Effects of electric shock
- 3 Safety when working with electrical equipment
- 4 Installation inspection
- 5 Fuse inserts change
- 6 Special cases
- 7 Fire Prevention
- 8 Protection
9 Personnel protection
- 9.1 Screening method
- 10 Prompt maintenance of electrical equipment
- 11.1 Video: Safety regulations for servicing overhead power lines
Such a situation may occur, provided that the safety regulations for the operation of electrical equipment are not followed. A person can get an electric shock when he interacts with the conductive elements of the apparatus through which the voltage passes. At that moment, when the discharge enters the body, a person feels biological, electrolytic and thermal effects.
The latter is the most dangerous because it causes burns in various parts of the body, and also ends with the heating of blood vessels and blood vessels.
No less dangerous is the biological effect, since in this case the tissues of the body are experiencing an irritant effect. The consequence of this can be a complete cessation of the vital systems of the body.
As for the electrolytic effect, it leads to the decomposition of blood.
Consequences of defeat
Electric shock can change a person’s condition to varying degrees. The determining factors here are factors such as:
- current value;
- duration and frequency of current;
- general condition of the body.
Effects of electric shock
If you rely on the results of the research, then at 1 mA a person feels a change in his condition. As the current increases, a person may experience painful muscle contractions. If the current is 12-15 mA, then the person loses the ability to control his muscles, because of what he does not have the strength to remove his hand or another part of the body without help from the striking source. Discharges in such a system have their own special name - non-releasing. If a person is struck by an even greater magnitude current, this leads to an increase in the risk of heart fibrillation, which is understood to mean a convulsive contraction. Obtaining a discharge of 100 mA is usually fatal.
Safety when working with electrical equipment
The main point is that device maintenance should be done only by specialists who have received special training. Locksmiths or electricians repairing and servicing electrical equipment are allowed to interact with similar devices only provided that they have a good level of knowledge of PTE and PTB, which is confirmed by the results qualification commission. As for all other specialists, they can work with units only under the supervision of responsible persons. In addition, for staff of any skill level, it is important to have knowledge of the identification of electrical safety signs.
The first thing that should be done by an electrician engaged in the repair and maintenance of electrical equipment - turn off the machine, and up to this point it is prohibited for it to perform any manipulations that may lead to direct interaction with the conductive parts of the device. If signs of an emergency condition of the installation have been identified, then it is necessary to immediately de-energize the elements, and also to notify the responsible person of the identified fact.
When conducting an inspection, a specialist must find out whether there is a protective vanishing of buildings, housings, frames and other elements that pose a threat, and whether it is in working condition. If at the time of touching a non-conductive element with a hand, which is usually required when determining the heating level, signs of currentthen, on the basis of this, it can be concluded that the insulation is broken and the ground is faulty. The only correct decision that should be made in such situations is to turn off the installation.
Fuse inserts change
If you turn to safety when working with electrical equipment, then it clearly contains information establishing that it is necessary to change burned-out elements only making sure that they are not received voltage. In some cases, certain circumstances may interfere with this requirement. Then this work can be carried out under conditions of disconnected load.
However, it is not safe to do this, given that during the execution of this operation there is a risk that the fuse insert will burn out. This in turn may result to emit electric arc. Therefore, here the specialist must take measures to protect against electric shock, for which this work is performed only with the help of insulating mites. You need to wear dielectric gloves on your hands, and special glasses on your eyes.
In accordance with the safety precautions when repairing electrical equipment, it is allowed to proceed to perform any manipulations only after the voltage is removed. Although there should be exceptions. If a small amount of work is needed, repair work can be carried out even under conditions of un-tensioned. If repair of devices with a voltage of up to 380 V is planned, then a certain procedure for troubleshooting should be followed. These works can be done only by specialists with a third group of electrical safety tolerance. In addition to this, such work should be carried out in the presence of another specialist who has fourth or fifth group.
Electrical safety procedures clearly establish which tools and equipment can be used for troubleshooting. So, the list of tools that can lead to a short circuit is officially fixed:
- steel handsaws
- other devices.
In no case shall all this equipment be used in accessing electrical equipment.
Mandatory requirement for used tools is reliable insulation handles. The very same worker who is engaged in the implementation of repair, must be on the basis of non-conductive properties. The same rules should be followed in the case of electrical installation.
Regardless of the nature of the planned event, during its holding, the requirements of the current sanitary rules and standards officially adopted by the deputy must be complied with. chief physician and GOST. These standards define the maximum limits for the intensity of the magnetic field:
- the electrical component should be in the frequency range of 100 kHz-30 MHz - 20 V / m, 30-300 MHz - 5 V / m;
- The magnetic component must satisfy the operating range of 100 kHz – 1.5 MHz - 5 A / m.
To determine the intensity of the electromagnetic field, a special device IEMP-1 is used. The installation site of functioning generators should be specially equipped premises. Devices that are designed to heat dielectrics and metals can be installed in common production workshops. However, for their safe operation is important observe some conditions.
- At workplaces radiation should not exceed the established limits.
- Personnel who do not maintain such facilities should be protected from radiation.
- For situations when it is necessary to perform heat treatment of dielectrics and metals, it is important to create exhaust ventilation.
- In order for air inlets to be reliably protected from high-frequency currents, they must be made of non-magnetic materials.
Exists a series of eventsWith which you can solve this problem:
- Control of the intensity of radiation by a source of magnetic field, which does not allow exceeding the permissible level.
- The use of means for individual protection, as well as the installation of an automatic warning alarm.
- The protective screen device, an alternative to which may be the location of workplaces at a safe distance from radiation sources, as well as the use of remote control.
- The choice of equipment for the optimal mode, which will ensure its efficiency and safety of employees.
In the case of operation of installations for induction heating, general shielding is usually applied. An important requirement here is accommodation. behind the screen hardening inductor and control panel. Alternatively, you can do something else: create a block screen for each zone. In this embodiment, the capacitor element must provide an appropriate form of execution, which must be made in the form of a metal mesh or chamber. When creating a transformer screen, it is important that it has the performance of a steel casing.
In the manufacture of the element of the melting or heating inductor, it is given the appearance of a metallic moving chamber. The process of equipment operation will be accompanied by camera movement: when the temperature rises, it will go down, when the normal temperature condition is restored, the camera will take its initial position. When creating a screen, you can give it the appearance of a fixed camera equipped with a door. The latter will provide free access in a situation when it is necessary to replace the heating element.
Prompt maintenance of electrical equipment
As part of this activity, the following main activities can be distinguished:
- Control of operating mode and condition of devices;
- Providing information on the operation of the equipment.
If as a result of a routine inspection were identified instrument malfunctions, then the staff must respond promptly and do whatever it takes to troubleshoot. In order to reduce the number of cases of equipment failure, it is important to carry out maintenance and repair work on a regular basis.
An important point is to ensure a safe environment for any event with regard to functioning devices. These requirements are enshrined in the PTB adopted by the decision of the Department of the Ministry of Electrification and Energy.
These binding instructions include the requirements for personnel who are engaged in the execution of certain work with electrical equipment. Each such specialist should know what danger he exposes himself when interacting with aggregates, possess knowledge and skills on the use of TB rules in the framework that relates to the task assigned to him. Every specialist should have an idea about the technology of installation of electrical equipment, its adjustment, use. In addition, he must clearly understand what elements his structure consists of.
It is mandatory for staff to have the knowledge and skills to provide first aid to victims:
- indirect cardiac muscle massage;
- artificial respiration.
Obligatory item in the program of training activities is familiarization with electrical safety signs.
A special section of the PTB is devoted to additional applications. They pay attention to the operation of various electrical installations, representing switching devices, electric motors, batteries, etc.
Work with electrical equipment requires a special approach, since the slightest mistake can affect the further operation of the device. Given that they are high voltage, these settings pose a health hazard and specialist life. For this reason, it is important for everyone to know about the safety precautions for servicing such devices. And therefore, only specialists with the necessary electrical safety clearance group can engage in the maintenance and repair of electrical equipment.