Any house or apartment should have utility systems for comfortable living. If everything has already been installed in the apartments when buying, then when building a house with your own hands, you may need to install electricians. The wiring must be installed correctly, and it is important to remember not only the quality of the lighting, but also the safety, after all, if improperly installed, electricians have a great chance to cause a fire, a circuit, or there will simply be constant interruptions with light.
To install wiring in private house all work is required to be divided into stages. So it will be easier to follow all the rules and schemes.. The work stages include:
- Analysis and calculation of power equipment;
- Project mapping;
- Installation of automatic switches, meter and switchboard panel;
- Installation of cables and cabling;
- Installation of various lighting fixtures, as well as outlets and switches;
- Installation of grounding and RCD system;
- Verification of the final result.
- 1 Power supply design in the house
- 2 Choice of types of equipment and cables
- 3 Choice of input automat and power supply
4 Installation of sockets, switches and cabling
- 4.1 Laying wiring in a pipe or metal hose
- 4.2 External wiring
- 5 Installation of grounding and RCD system
- 6 Checking the wiring in a wooden house
Power supply design in the house
As can be seen from the plan of work, the first thing you need to identify the final capacity of all equipment in the apartment, as well as design on paper initial wiring plan.
- Determine the location of all lighting fixtures, switches, sockets, and also places of individual connection of equipment, and to indicate all this on the plan of the house.
- Approximately indicate the power of all individual and lighting devices in the drawing of a private house.
- All lighting equipment is required to be distributed into separate groups, which belong to the power supply. Groups may be somewhat depending on the number of lighting devices and their power, but for a small wooden houseusually all equipment is in the same group.
- In the layout plan lighting should be turned on and lighting that will be installed in the courtyard of the house, it is usually recommended to make a separate circuit breaker. This will provide an opportunity to turn off the electricity in the house, without de-energizing the external lighting equipment.
- Electrical devices that have powerful indicators should be connected to a separate automated group. Typically, these devices include water heaters, electric boilers, stoves and many other electrical appliances.
For each group of electrical appliances required to calculate the power. Next, you need to summarize the power of electrical equipment, which will work simultaneously. Based on all of the above points, you can complete the wiring plan in a wooden house.
Choice of types of equipment and cables
When installing electrical equipment, an important aspect is the selection of the type of cable and the rest of the equipment. To install the wiring in a wooden house is not necessary to carry out accurate calculations and choose the most expensive types of cables.
For example, most often experts for small private houses recommend the use of copper cables. brands VVGng-LS or NYM. The first type of cable has proven itself in the market due to its quality and low cost. The second type of copper cable is distinguished by additional insulation, as well as its high quality and easy cutting. You can use aluminum types of cables, but their sections are usually increased. In addition, aluminum cables are quite brittle and problems may arise during installation when bending.
When connecting sockets in a private house, you must use a three-core cable as they should be grounded. Many household appliances, especially with high power, require grounding. It is recommended to install grounding in the form of a three-core cable and on lighting devices, however, even many experts neglect this rule. In any case, when using powerful lighting devices, for example, a searchlight in the yard, it is recommended to put the grounding.
When choosing sockets in a wooden house you need take into account several important parameters:
- By the power of the current, which are designed sockets;
- By type of installation: hidden or external wiring;
- Sockets are required to select by the number of cells at the time, as switches by the number of buttons. Sometimes you can save money and space on the wall, for example, if you combine the switches of the bathroom and toilet.
Choice of input automat and power supply
The input cable is usually chosen taking into account the maximum power of all electrical equipment. When installing or reconstructing electrical wiring, it is worth paying particular attention to it, since the power may be greater than that stated for the input cable. If the cable has an insufficient number of sections on the input, then there is a big chance of fire. Lead in cable in case of reconstruction it is necessary to replace, and in case of the initial installation, to attract specialists to it. Also, the input cable can be installed during the sealing of the meter.
The selection of an input circuit breaker must be selected taking into account the maximum loads. More precisely, if a short circuit occurs, the circuit breaker should open. In this case, the circuit breaker should operate at high loads.
Installation of sockets, switches and cabling
Before you start laying the cable, you need mark the main trackon which will be sockets, switches and lighting. You can lay the cable with your own hands, taking into account the plan of one of the following methods.
Laying wiring in a pipe or metal hose
Laying wiring with a pipe is necessary in the case of a full installation of cladding on the walls. In this case, it is not recommended to use corrugated pipes, as with its deformation there is a chance of wiring ignition, to which it will be simply impossible to reach.
Wiring Diagram using a pipe:
- It is necessary to prepare the route for wiring by crushing the walls. At the cable connection points, open-type distributors are installed, to which even after wall cladding there must be permanent and free access.
- Do-it-yourself install metal sleeves in the penetrations through the walls, as well as on the places of sockets and switches. Metal sleeves must have plugs.
- To install the wiring, you must use pipes with a diameter that is 60% free when installing cables.
- To install the wiring it is best to fit pipes made of copper material, since it is easiest to handle, bend, cut and sharpen. It is especially important to sharpen the copper material at the ends of the pipe so that during the laying of the electrical wiring sharp cuts do not damage the wiring.
- While pulling the wiring, it is necessary to simultaneously check the insulation of the wires directly to the pipe body. This method can reveal even at the time of installation of wiring, damage to the insulation on the pipe.
- The cables are separated, but it is important to leave about 20 cm of the wiring margin in the junction box in case re-assembly is required. All wiring is twisted and secured with a PPE cap.
- It remains only to distribute the wiring and connect it to the sockets, switches and lighting fixtures.
External type wiring is performed when using cable channelwhich is made of self-extinguishing plastic. Cable channels may vary in size, but also vary in color. For example, there is a white color or a box made under a tree, which is especially suitable when installing electrical wiring in a wooden house.
Scheme of wiring in the cable channel:
- Initially mark on the wall route wiring. On the cable channels, the lid is removed and mounted on a wooden surface according to the marking with a step equal to 50 cm using self-tapping screws. The dimensions of the cable channel are selected according to the number of wiring and its sections.
- The hands are installed junction boxes, in places where the cables are connected.
- When using this method of installing electrical wiring, sockets and switches are installed only on external wiring.
- All electrical wiring is laid in the cable channel, and is closed with a lid. The rest of the cable can be conveniently located in the box if there is enough space.
- In distribution boxes according to the scheme all cables are connected. With the help of wiring connect all sockets, switches and lighting devices.
Installation of grounding and RCD system
Grounding when installing electrical wiring in a private house must be installed without fail on all electrical equipment with great power, whose body is made of metal. In a private house, grounding is most often done by hand.
To install the ground you will need three pins of metallic material, and a corner that will be about 3 meters long. To connect the pins, you also need to have trimmed corners, one meter long. Next, you need to dig a hole, which will be about 40-50 cm deep. The pit should be made in the form of an isosceles triangle, and each side is equal to 1 meter in length.
Using welding pins and triangle trims connect and installed in the pit, and from one of the lines goes down the conductor for grounding. The grounding conductor is also required to conduct to the distributing shield and connect it to the bus. Also to the grounding electrical wiring are connected all the conductors of the yellow-green wiring. This is the color of the insulation on the cable.
In a wooden house, it is also possible to install a RCD system, and more specifically, a residual current device. Such a system allows you to protect a person from the defeat of electricity through household appliances in the event that the insulation was broken. The RCD can detect even the smallest leakage of electrical current and block all electrical wiring until a problem is detected. The RCD system is distinguished by two types: leakage current or rated current.
RCD current rating its strength is slightly higher than the power of electricity at which the circuit breaker operates. For wooden houses, it is best to use the leakage current in a way that can be set for any room or equipment. The connection circuit of the RCD is best entrusted to specialists.
Checking the wiring in a wooden house
After the installation of all electrical wiring, circuit breakers, all wiring and electrical connections will be completed, It is necessary to call specialists from the electrical laboratory who can check everything on their own for defects or abnormal installation. Experts will check the insulation, wiring, installation of all parts from the socket to the circuit breaker and if the work is done qualitatively, then the protocol will be issued, which will be needed when sealing counter
It is desirable to place the wiring diagram on the switchboard, as well as a note indicating the number of circuit breakers and which group feeds each of them.
This work on the installation of wiring in a wooden house can be completed.