It is difficult to imagine how people used to exist without an electric lamp. When electricity is cut off for technical reasons, everyone around them freezes, waiting. There is a feeling that slows the pulse of the planet. Let's try to trace the evolution of this device, without which now just can not do.
- 1 A bit of history
2 Stages of development of the invention
- 2.1 Let there be light!
- 3 Conclusion
A bit of history
Who invented first incandescent bulb? To answer specifically and without doubt this question is very difficult. All this because not one particular person took part in the invention. At different times and at different stages of the development of an electric lamp, many people have invested their work and knowledge to make it the way we see it and know it now.
At first glance, the lamp may seem simple, but in fact it is quite a complicated technology. Still in ancient Egypt and among the people of the Mediterranean oils were used to illuminate the dwellingswhich were poured into special vessels with wicks of cotton thread. On the shores of the Caspian Sea, oil was used instead of oils. Already at that time, people invented various technologies that help to see in the dark.
It is absolutely known that the incandescent lamp was invented in the XIX century. Throughout this time, many people tried to invent and improve on the “electric candle”.
Several people actively participated in the invention of the light bulb, namely:
- Yablochkov Pavel Nikolaevich;
- Heinrich Goebel;
- Lodygin Alexander Nikolaevich;
- Thomas Edison;
- William David Coolidge.
Stages of development of the invention
The first incandescent lamp, which was very similar to the real one, was invented by Yablochkov Pavel Nikolaevich. He devoted his whole life to electrical engineering. To invent innovations in this sphere and introduce all this into life was his main occupation. The first electric candle is also his invention. Thanks to his candles the opportunity to cover the night city. The first electric candles appeared on the streets of St. Petersburg. Such a candle was cheap and enough for half an hour. After combustion, it had to be replaced with a new one. Responsible work involved in the city janitors. Later, to facilitate their work, lanterns with automatic candle change were invented.
Belgian Gerard in 1838, managed to invent an electric lamp, in which the light source served as a carbon rod, an electric current was supplied to it.
Two years later, a resident of England with French roots Delarue, invented instead of coal to use platinum filament for glowing. These two options were considered a tremendous impetus to the invention of the electric incandescent lamp, but in practice it was at that time that their use was accompanied by many inconveniences. Coal lamp was uncomfortable and quickly burned, and the electric lamp using a platinum string was distinguished by its high cost. Therefore, many continued to look for other alternatives, inventing and implementing all new and new sources of light. Everyone wanted the incandescent lamp to burn as long as possible, but many people missed the failure to work on the invention.
In 1854, the German scientist Heinrich Goebel came up with the idea that the incandescent lamp would burn longer in vacuum space. It was possible to extend the burning time of the electric lamp by several hours. Scientists spent several more years trying to provide a complete vacuum in the lamp.
And only in 1874, our compatriot Alexander N. Lodygin managed to invent and create an ideal electric lamp that burned constantly. His brainchild passed all the tests. It was then that the real modern lamp was invented. Lodygina, therefore, is considered a pioneer, since his light bulb could already be on for almost half an hour. After pumping air out of it, she continued to work again. In 1983, for the first time, the streets of St. Petersburg were lit with Lodygin bulbs. Alexander Nikolaevich came from a noble Russian family, despite the poverty of his family. His ancestor was a common ancestor with the Romanovs - Andrei Kobyla.
In America, they learned about these experiments and the inventions of Alexander Nikolaevich, thanks to a naval officer N. Khotyn. The Russian Empire ordered cruisers in America. During one of the visits of a naval officer to America, he visited the laboratory of Thomas Edison and handed him the invention of Yablochkov and Lodygin from hand to hand. Thomas Edison began to try to improve the already seemingly perfect incandescent lamp. In 1879 he managed to do it. Instead of a carbon rod Thomas tried to apply beech thread and achieved the desired result. The light bulb began to burn much longer.
To this result, Thomas was not one day. More than 6,000 attempts with coal thread he had to overcome. He always sought what he wanted and found what he was looking for. His light bulbs could burn for a hundred hours. In November, Thomas allegedly patented his invention, which outraged Yablochkov, he made an accusation against an American.
This invention was not the only merit of Thomas Edison. He also created a household rotary switch, without which it is already difficult to imagine the process of the electric light, the base and the cartridge. His name is associated with the invention of a telephone transmitter, mimeograph and phonograph. He first opened a large-scale production of light bulbs, which helped many people to feel the beauty of electricity. Over the next ten years many scientists have tried to improve the light bulb, but Thomas Edison was considered its inventor.
Alexander Nikolaevich Lodygin continued, regardless of his colleague and competitor from America, to create and modernize his brainchild. He was looking for a universal and long-lasting filament. He managed to achieve good success with the use of tungsten and molybdenum filaments. To produce lamps from these materials was expensive for those times, therefore the invention turned out to be inefficient and costly. In 1910, the American explorer William David Coolidge managed to simplify the creation of a tungsten filament, it became cheaper and made it possible to massively produce inexpensive incandescent light bulbs.
Let there be light!
The result was a modern incandescent bulb, which consists of several important elements.
- The cavity of the flask (vacuum or filled with gas).
- Body heat.
- Electrodes (current input).
- Hooks to maintain body heat.
- The legs of the lamp.
- External link current, fuse.
- Base housing.
- Insulator base (glass).
- Contact bottom of the cap.
Thus, Lenin himself had nothing to do with creating the “light bulb of Ilyich”. Above this wonderful invention, which finally managed to dispel the darkness, several people worked almost simultaneously. Each of them made a considerable contribution to the creation of a real light bulb. If you answer the question of who invented the lamp, you should definitely remember all these people. His hard work they helped to transfer the invention from the laboratories to our homes and radically change people's lives for the better. All together and individually deserve our attention, respect and gratitude.