The ability to solder in modern life, saturated with electrical appliances and electronics, is necessary just as the ability to use a screwdriver. There are many methods of soldering metals, but first you need to know how to solder properly with a soldering iron. Such a seemingly uncomplicated action has a lot of subtleties and nuances - starting with choosing a tool and ending with safety measures when working with it.
- 1 General issues
- 2 Efficient soldering conditions
- 3 Selection of consumables
- 4 Types of soldering irons
- 5 Selection of soldering tip
6 Soldering Iron Recommendations
- 6.1 Soldering wiring
- 6.2 Electronics repair
- 6.3 Oversized parts
- 6.4 Important points
It is metals that are used, they tend to spread over the surface if they are in molten form. This is facilitated by the forces of gravity and moderate tension. This property allows you to combine several parts. They are covered with a layer of solder, fixing the elements in a certain position.
It would seem all elementary: melted the metal and covered them with the place of attachment of parts. In practice, there is a more difficult situation, because it is important that the item was both durable and conducted by electric current. Ideally, the layer should be thin, but with maximum hiding.
Efficient soldering conditions
To better rightWhen subscribing to this operation, you need to consider the following points:
- cleanliness of the place of adhesion. An extremely important aspect, since the presence of even a small layer of oxide film makes the mount unreliable. It is for these purposes that maintenance is performed;
- melting temperature. The solder should become malleable with fewer degrees Celsius than the elements being joined. If you do not take into account this aspect, you can find yourself in a situation where everything will have to be redone, because a normal crystal lattice has not formed at the junction.
Selection of consumables
The ability to do it right is the key to success. Everything is not so difficult, because there are a lot of universal options with which you can easily solve most of the actual problems during soldering. All the necessary information is contained on the labels, so before buying any brand, carefully read what is written there.
Usually, fluxes are needed for etching and removing the oxide film. In addition, their use is a great way to protect against corrosion. Without them, it is difficult to imagine full-fledged preparation for soldering, because if the parts do not tinker, then a high-quality joint cannot be achieved. As a rule, these substances are mixtures of salts, alkalis and acids.
Two types of fluxes can be distinguished:
- active - are created on the basis of chloric and hydrochloric acids. They can be used in the widest range of operations. Their main disadvantage is the need to remove immediately after the spike. If this is not done, the likelihood of a short circuit is great, as they are highly conductive.
- liquid - based rosin and alcohol or glycerin. Very effective when working with steel, but not suitable for non-ferrous metals. They also need flushing, because over time they collect moisture, which increases conductivity and can cause short circuits.
The choice is made on the basis of specific goals that need to be achieved. It is better to have both species in the arsenal.
Fixation is carried out using solder. As a rule, lead-tin marks (PIC) are used. After marking there is necessarily a figure that indicates the concentration of tin. The more impressive this indicator, the higher the resistance to mechanical stress and electrical conductivity. The melting point is lower. Lead in the compound is needed for freezing. Without it, tin cannot maintain uniformity.
On sale there are special types of solders, in which there is no lead (BP). It is replaced by indium or zinc. A big plus of such compounds is the absence of toxicity. The melting point is higher, but the strength is much more serious.
You can find fusible brands. This solder Wood and Rose. They spread at a temperature of 90−110 degrees. Such compounds are used in the creation and repair of equipment.
Types of soldering irons
The variety of types of work and the conditions in which they are produced gave rise to several types soldering equipment.
- Network. Eat from sockets. The most common option, which is familiar to anyone who has at least a distant idea. As a rule, are used when working with wires and massive parts. Differ in high power that allows to warm up the fastened elements qualitatively. There are also disadvantages: low ergonomics. Instruments This type of heavy, have low autonomy. The sting is located far from the handle, so for soldering small parts such devices are not suitable.
- Soldering station. Thermal control is used to maintain the temperature. They are actively used when working with small schemes. They do not differ in high power (up to 40W), but this is not necessary for their scope.
Selection of soldering tip
This part of the design is different in form and material from which it was made. The most primitive option is the styloid sting. There are many variations: paddle, cone, bevel, etc. Choosing a form, you need to have an idea of the work that will be performed by this sting. It is important to acquire something that will provide maximum surface contact area.
As a rule, it is used as a material. copperin which various impurities are added (for example, chromium or nickel). It allows to improve operational properties. In particular, the durability is significantly increased.
A sting without cover quickly becomes unusable. It must be periodically cleaned and to trick. In order to level this flaw, it is recommended to forge this element and grind it in order to give one form or another.
Soldering Iron Recommendations
In various situations, this tool can be used with a number of features that are worth paying attention to. On this depends not only the final quality, but also the degree of feasibility of the operation as a whole.
The ends are dipped into the flux and after that we draw a stinger moistened with the same solution. It is important to shake off excess with wires. Do not neglect this, if you want to achieve high-quality connection and flawless functioning.
When the preliminary stage is completed, we twist the wires and heat them up with a small amount of solder. All free space must be filled with the molten mixture.
If multiwire conductors are meant, it is possible to do without tinning. The ends are simply wetted and fixed without prior treatment with the sting. Inside the switchboards this operation is not carried out, as the risk of corrosion is high. In addition, such structures are not classified as detachable.
Right The approach is achievable only by experience. If you have never done such work, use the help of a specialist who will tell you how to work as a soldering iron in this case, because it is important that someone controls and contributes in time edits in process. But if we are talking about a typical printed microchip, even the one who first picked up the tool will cope.
Easiest to solder small output elements. Pre-fix them with some viscous substance in the holes. Tightly press the sting on the reverse side to warm up. Then we introduce solder into place of soldering (it should not be too much).
If the pin is loose, we first wet it with a flux. With this technique, a small drop of tin from the soldering iron is transferred to the leg. The substance flows, filling the hole.
Cable sleeves, tanks and dishes have a high heat capacity, so the process service and connections looks a little different.
First, we achieve complete immobility. This is done using clamps or plasticine (wax). Then a point spike is performed.
Next stage - tinning. It is performed in places of fixation. It is important to approach this process with all care.
Then - the free space is filled with solder. Special formulations are used that are characterized by refractoriness and ability to maintain tightness over a long period of time.
If a large seam is to be made, the role of a soldering iron can be performed by a copper hatchet heated on a fire. It's all, what you need for soldering in such cases.
- Fixed parts must remain stationary until fully cured. If this is neglected, the solder will break up into many crystals. We have to do everything again.
- In order for the tin to be constantly in a liquid state, contact of the sting with any wetted point is sufficient.
- If sticking is observed, this indicates a lack of power. Either increase the heat or use a tool with more impressive indicators.
- Large parts must always be kept warm. For this often use gas burner.
- When working with heat-sensitive parts is meant, mix ordinary solder with low-melting.
- You need to use only serviceable equipment. Only such an approach will ensure security.
Working with a soldering iron is not as simple as it may seem. The development of this skill will significantly expand the range of operations and technicianthat you can use.