The warmth in the house gives a feeling of coziness and comfort. The lack of a comfortable temperature in the house not only deprives you of comfort, but also damages human health. The choice of heating options is quite large. Many install multifunctional boilers that can be used on different types of fuel. However, warm floors are becoming increasingly popular.
- 1 Briefly about warm floors
- 2 Heating system arrangement
- 3 Installation of an electric heater with your own hands
- 4 Installation of water system "warm floor"
- 5 Combined systems
- 6 Conclusion
Briefly about warm floors
This heating system originates from ancient Rome. Although then far from talking about modern technology, but the principle of operation remains the same to this day. There are such types of system: electric, water and combined. The last 40 years, the electric heating system of the premises has shown that it is worthy of attention and respect.
There are a lot of reasons for popularity: ease of installation and operation, device durability and economy due to the use of electricity. Often use a combined method of heating: water and electricity. This will also help reduce the cost of electricity during the heating season.
This new system is significantly different from the traditional heating system and outweighs it. First, unlike heating with radiators, this device has more heating area, since the heating elements are stacked throughout the house.
Secondly, no other heating provides so much comfort and warmth to the legs, and if the legs are warm, then the whole body is good. Third, the room temperature is in the range 25-28 degrees. The largest comfort zone is at a distance of one meter from the floor; at the level of the body, the temperature is 20–21 degrees; however, based on human physiology, such indicators do not deprive discomfort.
Also in this heating device, you can easily regulate and change the temperature, simply turn the knob of the thermostat. However, it should be remembered that work efficiency depends on the availability of furniture and the type of carpet on the floor. Each material has a thermal conductivity property, therefore to avoid unnecessary heat loss, should choose the right floor covering on the warm floor, on which you will then walk.
Heating system arrangement
The design is quite simple: the heating elements are mounted on a special insulation material, filled with a solution of cement and sand and then make a floor covering. The heat source is water or electrical cable. Consider in detail this electrical device.
According to the external characteristics of the floor cable similar to antenna cable. However, its task is not to transfer electricity, but to convert electricity into heat. The insulating layer of this element can withstand temperatures up to 100 degrees and more. However, if the cable overheats, then this layer will be broken, leading to a short in the system.
The peculiarity of a heated floor is a rather rapid rise in temperature in the air (heat dissipation), the maximum value of which is 25 W / m. Therefore, you should not choose a cable with high heat dissipation, and observe the correct distance during installation, as this will prevent overheating and short-circuiting. In the event of a short circuit, it is almost impossible to find the place of damage, this will cause a lot of trouble and failure will cost a lot.
With a water floor, these failures are excluded, however, in water pipes. cracks may appearthat will lead to heat leakage, and in high-rise buildings - to the flood of lower apartments.
Installation of an electric heater with your own hands
Mounted underfloor heating can be performed in this order:
- choosing a system you need specifically know the purpose of the acquisition. Before installing it is important to determine the purpose of the underfloor heating: it can serve as additional heating in the house, be the main type of heating or underfloor heating can only be in glazed loggia;
- The most common way to install this heating system is considered to be laying the cable under the tile, which is why it is most often used in the kitchen and in the bathroom. In this case, 1 square. m. square need 120 watts. In the kitchen area of 9 square meters. You need somewhere around 45 meters of electrical cable. However, before buying it, you should consult with the seller, who will provide more accurate data and tell you about the minimum allowable distance between cable threads;
- in the process of laying enters thorough cleaning, leveling and clearing the room from all unnecessary items, garbage;
- the preparatory process also includes the preparation of a place for a thermostat, which regulates and sets the required temperature;
- after performing such preparatory work proceed to the insulation of the base. Layer of foam or polystyrene is at least 3 cm thick. But more and more they began to use modern, thin material, with a thermal conductivity of 0.049 W / mK - penofol. Then around the perimeter of the room is laid reinforcing mesh. Its main task is to prevent overheating of the cable and to make cement mortar more durable with which the floor surface is poured;
- then the mounting tape is fixed on the floor, thanks to which the system cables are fixed. It helps to eliminate bending and maintain the distance between the heating elements. Do not lay the cable where the furniture will stand;
- For normal heating, a temperature sensor is installed. It is attached to a special tube, which, together with the cable, is poured with a cement screed;
- Before pouring, check the correctness of the construction and the reliability of cable connections. Then evenly pour the cement screed, which is up to 4 cm in thickness, to prevent cable failure, you need to check the filling for the presence of voids. After you need to wait for the complete drying of the cement;
- check on the performance of the “warm floor” system should be no earlier than one month. Since in case of turning on the heating until the floor is completely dry, the solution will dry unevenly and will begin cracks, voids, and this will increase the risk of an early failure of the heating devices.
Installation of water system "warm floor"
Installation of a water heated floor is implemented in a similar sequence as for the electric one. However, for them there are different laws of physics. In an electric cable, the temperature is distributed equally over the entire area, however, for a water cable, everything is different. Water heating occurs using heating devices on different types of fuel - electricity, gas or combined on liquid and solid fuels.
When water enters from the heating chamber into the heating system, the water immediately reaches the maximum temperature. Then, moving through the pipes, its heat goes outside and the already significantly cool heat transfer medium returns to the system. Therefore, if the installation is done incorrectly, then you should not wait for the best warm-up in the room.
Water warm floor stack several options using:
- decking system.
In the decking system, there are assemblies based on expanded polystyrene or wood.
Due to the low cost of installation, the concrete system has become most common for today. Laying the water floor occurs in several stages. Its sequence and materials are the same as for the electrical heating system. But, unlike electric elements, a water pipe is not afraid of overheating.
Laying water pipes requires: care, caution (to avoid strong kinks, turns) and a certain sequence. This floor will have quite a significant weight, so instead of light reinforcing grids use reinforcement 4–5 mm. The laying step should be no more than 30-40 cm, otherwise the floor will warm unevenly and cold areas will arise.
Most often, these options are used for laying water floor pipes:
- double helix;
- "a loop";
- "Snake" (in parallel);
- "Double snake".
Which option to choose depends on many factors, including the places where the pipes with particular hot water - window openings, exterior walls, etc., and it would be recommended to recommend one or another way of installation wrong. The temperature can be controlled either manually or with an electronic valve, which reacts to signals from a temperature sensor. Before the cement-sand filling, it is necessary to conduct pressure testing of the entire heating system and, thus, to exclude all sorts of water leaks.
Most often, this heating system is installed by those who are in their home. has a warm floor heating. It is economical and profitable in cases where you need to create comfortable conditions in the house, slightly raising the room air temperature, especially in spring or autumn.
Such a combined floor is a good option for houses with centralized heating. It will help out when it is not possible to turn on the heater and allow you to create a pleasant indoor climate. Installation is carried out similarly to the above floor heating systems. But it is important to remember that the joint work of the electrical and water systems may create overheating of the heating cable.
Regardless of the type and choice of installation of a warm floor, the first thing you need to lay a good and strong base. Selecting the floor that is best for the house - everyone decides for himself. However, for reliability and safety installation of the device is better to entrust professionals.