Bath - a symbol of hygiene and health. And although every house is equipped with a bathroom, lovers of bath procedures do not become less. The construction and equipment of the bath is a creative and responsible process. Requires knowledge of the features of the installation of lighting in conditions of high humidity and temperature. Therefore, to start self-wiring electricity in the bath should be after careful familiarization with the rules and standards of fire safety.
- 1 Lighting device in the bath, the wiring diagram
2 Drawings and calculations of wiring in the bath
2.1 How to choose the right materials
- 2.1.1 Table: cable section selection
- 2.1.2 Table: Moisture Protection Levels in the International IP Index
- 2.1.3 Table: Cable Labeling
- 2.1.4 Video: phased wiring in the bath and wire connection
- 2.2 Wiring tools
3 Step-by-step instruction: do electrical wiring with your own hands
- 3.1 Installation of lighting
- 3.2 Video: how to install fiber-optic lighting in the steam room
- 3.3 Installation of switches and sockets
3.4 Installation of junction boxes
- 3.4.1 Video: Bath wiring technology - hidden wiring and sockets
Lighting device in the bath, the wiring diagram
Electricity and moisture are incompatible concepts. In order for the lighting to work properly, it is necessary to protect it as much as possible from fumes. Water is an excellent conductor of electrical current, so it is important to take care of proper insulation of electrical wiring.
Standard wiring in the bath includes:
- switchboard, equipped with automatic shutdown and protective shutdown device (RCD);
External wiring in the bath using cable channels is “hidden” in the switchboard from moisture and temperature fluctuations
- lighting circuit that provides power to the lamps;
When external wiring, the cable is laid after the installation of a finishing coating.
- voltage supply to sockets and heaters (boiler, radiators, etc.).
It must be remembered that under adverse conditions in a humid environment of the bath and an increase in the probability occurrence of a short circuit operation of electrical devices is allowed only with a system grounding.
If, instead of a wood stove, an electric steam generator is used in the steam room, an additional power line is laid, which supplies voltage to the device. The calculation of the conductor cross-sectional area is made in accordance with the technical characteristics specified in the operation manual of the steam generator.
At connection of the steam generator it is necessary to follow recommendations of the manufacturer.
The bath is connected from the distribution panel from the house and does not have its own meter. The cable is laid in two ways - by air or underground. The air line requires less time and money. But the underground wiring is reliable and independent of atmospheric phenomena.
Knowledge of the internal structure of the electrification system helps to understand the importance of properly connecting all wires.
It is important to make an accurate calculation of the parameters of the input conductor. It must withstand the total power of consumers of all bath equipment without heating. Choose a cable with a power reserve of 25–30% so that it can cope when new electric power consumers (kettle, TV, computer) are added or the lighting is changed.
Today, the use of aluminum conductors in the housing sector is prohibited. Regulatory documents prescribe the installation of electrical wiring lines only using copper cables. Aluminum wires are used only for laying overhead lines, since the specific gravity of copper wire is much larger.
Drawings and calculations of wiring in the bath
We start with the image of the plan of all the bath rooms and the location of sockets, switches, and lighting lamps. The switchboard is traditionally located near the entrance door. From it, the cables carry the current through the rooms. Draw up drawings in a single scale in order to properly navigate along the length and cross-sectional area of cables.
A preliminary sketch of the location of lamps and sockets in the bath is drawn by hand, so as not to miss any of the alleged power points
With a home network equipped with grounding, no additional work is required. But if a two-phase cable with a phase and zero passes to the bath, it is necessary to install a grounding bus. It will take a little time and money, but will guarantee the fire and personal safety of users.
Control measurements of ground resistance are made by an employee of a specialized organization who hands over the object to operation
A metal pin (or 2–3 pcs.) Is driven into the ground to the depth of a meter and a half, and the “earth” is brought to the switchboard using an iron bar. For a private bath of small dimensions such grounding is sufficient. If we are talking about a large public building, the calculation and installation of grounding are made by specialized organizations that have a profile license.
Grounding in the bath are subject to:
- sockets located in close proximity to water taps;
- electric boilers; boilers;
- heated towel rails;
- baths (cast iron, steel and even acrylic);
Grounding is a necessary element of a security system in case of sudden violations in the electrical network
When installing wiring, use only three-core connecting cables, as well as sockets and switches, designed for grounding.
When developing a wiring diagram for electric bath equipment, follow the main rules:
- It is forbidden to install sockets and switches in the steam room and in the washing room.
- Cables that power the lights in the steam room and shower room, are arranged so that the line does not pass through walls, and was hidden or led to the lamp through adjacent rooms (upper floor, attic, adjacent room).
- Lighting equipment is mounted in the corners of the double room or behind the seat backs and under the shelves: in these areas there is less chance of overheating and getting wet. Each lamp is additionally protected with a waterproof canopy.
Rubber pads reliably protect the lamp from moisture
- It is forbidden to use fluorescent lamps. When heated, they explode, filling the space with poisonous mercury vapor. The power of ordinary incandescent bulbs should not exceed 60 watts. LED and fiber optic lighting is used with the installation of step-down transformers (outside the steam room).
In the bath, the wiring is done outside or hidden. Hidden is mounted at the construction stage: before the internal lining of the bath is installed. Wires must be placed in a metal sleeve. When fixing the corrugations to the walls of the room, keep in mind that condensate forms inside the sleeve. Therefore, observe the installation angle by pre-making holes in certain places to allow water and steam to exit.
External wiring is easier to install: cables are protected by a corrugated tube of increased heat resistance.
How to choose the right materials
List of basic materials required for wiring in the bath:
- cables and conductors;
- sockets, switches, junction boxes;
- connecting materials;
- circuit breakers, protective current shutdown device (RCD).
Let us consider in detail each item:
- Cables and conductors are used to transfer current from the switchboard to the consumer. For bath use wires with double insulation, resistant to high temperatures. Calculation of the conductor cross-section will help to make special tables, which display the recommended load on the conductor by the manufacturer. In practice, use a wire section of 1.5 mm2 for lighting and 2.5 mm2 for sockets. Insulation is selected in accordance with the level of protection in a particular room. The input cable is selected on the basis of the total power of all consumers within the bath with a margin of 30–50%.
- For the bath, it is advised to use ordinary incandescent lamps of low power. Energy-saving lamps are suitable for lighting all rooms except the steam room, since each such lamp has The base contains smart electronics that are not designed for operation at high humidity and temperature
Optical fiber capable of operating at high temperatures in the steam room
Illumination with the help of LED strips creates coziness and makes your stay in the steam room comfortable
- To distribution boxes, switches and sockets impose increased demands on moisture resistance. The degree of security is indicated by the IP index and mark it on the product case. Switches and sockets with IP index from 35 to 65 (the higher the value, the more expensive the product) are suitable for the bath.
- The connecting materials include pads, terminal blocks, twist. They communicate between conductors in distribution boxes and are an alternative to soldering wires. The quality of soldered wires is higher, but the terminal blocks are more convenient for installation: the cable connection speed increases. Experts recommend to observe the color and letter marking of conductors,connecting wires of the same color and destination. Blue - zero, brown - phase, yellow-green - earth. Correct connection is useful during repair, when all components of a chain are immediately determined by color.
- Protective equipment is mounted on the switchboard. The main task is to correctly select the nominal characteristics of the device. The calculation is made according to the formula P = I x U, where P is power, I is amperage, and U is mains voltage. To find out the rated current of the automaton, it is necessary to divide the total power of all devices by the voltage, which is 230 V (I = P / U). This will be the desired rated value of the circuit breaker. When selecting the RCD, pay attention to the differential currents index, which in this case - the less, the better.
For convenience, the operating parameters of the RCD are displayed in the form of an icon on the device case.
Table: cable section selection
switching on 220V
switching on 3 × 220V / 380
laid in a pipe
|AL||CU||Continuously permissible current A when heating the cable to 60 aboutWITH||kw||Continuously permissible current A when heating the cable to 60 aboutWITH||kw||CU||AL|
This table, decoding the reduction of domestic manufacturers of cables, will help you choose the desired type of insulation.
Table: Moisture Protection Levels in the International IP Index
|1||vertical drops||vertically dripping water should not disturb the operation of the device|
|2||vertical drops at an angle of up to 15about||Vertically dripping water should not disrupt the operation of the device if it is deflected from the working position at an angle of up to 15about|
|3||falling spray||protection from rain - spray falls vertically or at an angle of up to 60about to vertical|
|4||spray||protection from splashes falling in any direction|
|5||jet||protection from water jets from any direction|
|6||sea waves||protection from sea waves or strong water jets - the water inside the body should not disrupt the operation of the device|
|7||short dive to a depth of 1 m||during short-term immersion, water does not get into quantities that disrupt the operation of the device - permanent operation in the immersed mode is not expected|
|8||long dive to a depth of more than 1 m||full water tightness - the device can work in the immersed mode|
Properly selected electrical accessories protect the wiring in the bath from a short circuit.
Table: Cable Labeling
|Conductor||Alphanumeric ID||Color Identification|
|Colour||Color code according to GOST 28763|
|single phase phase conductor||L||brown||Bn|
|phase conductor 1 three-phase circuit||L1|
|phase conductor 2 three-phase circuit||L2||the black||BK|
|phase conductor 3 three-phase circuit||L3||Gray||Gy|
|single phase grounded phase conductor||LE||blue||BU|
|grounded three-phase phase conductors||LE1, LE2, LE3|
|Protective conductors and conductors combining the functions of protective conductors|
|protective conductor||PE||green yellow||GNYE|
|equipotential bonding conductor||PB||green yellow||GNYE|
Lettering and color marking of power cables will allow you to navigate the wiring connection during installation.
Video: phased wiring in the bath and wire connection
If the wiring in the bath is planned outside, then no special tools are needed. Looking for:
- electrical screwdrivers;
- insulating tape;
- drill, equipped with nozzles for screws;
- construction tape with hydraulic level or laser level.
With the help of a laser level is marking for the installation of electrical appliances
If hidden wiring is mounted, prepare:
- perforator and a set of crowns for drilling mounting holes for podrozetniki;
- putty accessories - buckets, grinding bar, mixer, alabaster, etc.
To install podrozetnikov in a stone wall used perforator
Step-by-step instruction: do electrical wiring with your own hands
The complex of works is divided into three parts. The order is not decisive, but experienced installers always start distributing cables from the terminal boxes and finish installing lighting fixtures.
Installation of lighting
Depending on the lighting project, the installation of the devices is done in several stages.
- The conductors are laid from the intended points of illumination to the switchboard: the exact location of all points of installation of lamps, switches and sockets (according to the drawing) is determined. The cabling is done before finishing the premises. The place of the future lamp is calculated and the three-core is fixed in its immediate vicinity. conductor encased in a corrugated sleeve so that subsequently the cable length is enough to connect lamps. The cable is fastened for the lathing or frame timber with special clips. It is recommended to adhere to the rule when laying wires: hold them 15–20 cm from the line of the wall. In the future, such a system will come in handy during repairs - it will not be necessary to open the entire ceiling to find the points of fastening the wires. It is also desirable to make a diagram of the already laid cables.
Wires are laid on the ceiling and walls before the installation of finishing
- Before finishing works - covering the ceiling and walls - it is necessary to test the performance of the wiring with a tester and a lamp attached to a small piece of wire. If everything is working properly, the ends of the cables are carefully insulated with a dielectric tape, and the machines at the switchboard are manually transferred to the disconnected position.
Tester - a device for determining the parameters of electrical wiring, helps to determine the break in the electrical circuit when laying the wires
- After covering the surface of the ceiling and walls, holes are cut in them to install lighting devices. It is important to observe maximum accuracy and compliance with the drawings. An incorrectly cut hole in the wooden surface can no longer be fixed and transferred to another place.
An example of installing an outlet in a bath using a metal socket: the wires are routed to the wall, insulated and closed by the socket
- Overhead lights are mounted in two stages: the mounting plate is attached, and the wires are connected in the terminal blocks, observing the color marking. Further screws fix the outer cover of the illuminator.
- Mortise lamp mounted in a loop of wire, pre-cooked before covering the plane. The cable is cut, and the resulting ends are wound into the terminals of the lamp holder.
- A separate part of the work is the installation of lighting devices powered from 12 V. The step-down transformer is located behind the cladding panel and is connected to the power cable. Only after that the lighting lamp is connected to the network.
Diagram of the correct installation of the LED strip in the bath will help eliminate the error of connecting wires
- Before the lamps are screwed in, the network is checked for operation and the presence of voltage. After that, the lamp is finally fixed.
It is important to remember that all electrical work is performed only when the machine is turned off. The supply voltage is allowed only for short periods of time to check. During the connection of the wires on the shield, you must hang a label that says "Do not turn on." Go installation work.
Video: how to install fiber-optic lighting in the steam room
Installation of switches and sockets
Sockets in the bath are mounted at a height of not less than 0.5 m from the floor level and no closer than 60 cm from water sources.
Proper installation of the outlet contributes to compliance with safety in the bath
If the wiring is hidden, podozetniki installed in the designated places. During the fixing, power cables, which were laid in advance in the grooves, wind up inside it. In brick, block and concrete walls, the seat for the underside is drilled with a perforator. Sequencing:
- A hole of the required size is cut in the wall, and wires are drawn out through the holes in the case.
- Podrozetnik fixed alabaster or plaster. Drying time - up to 30 minutes.
- The ends of the current-carrying cores are cleaned by 0.5-1.5 cm, insulated and twisted into a bundle.
- After finishing the facing work, the device’s pad is inserted into the sub-housing and the wires are connected.
- Mounted outlet cover (or switch).
Ceramic block in the bottom is fixed in two ways:
- with the help of a sliding mechanism with spacers;
- with the help of screws, which are inserted into the grooves of the platform and scrolled together with the shoe.
If the wiring in the waiting room is external, installation is carried out without installation of a socket. In the locations of switches and sockets pre-installed dielectric pads. Cables are packaged in cable channels or corrugated tubing.
When installing switches it is important to arrange control keys in accordance with accepted standards. Turning off the light should be done by pressing the bottom of the button.
Installation of junction boxes
In the terminal boxes, power cables are connected. They are installed at the top of the wall. The cover fastens on plastic latches or a carving. When assembling, pay attention to the rubber sealing ring: it seals the inner space, protecting it from moisture and dust.
The supply of electricity to the lighting fixtures depends on the accuracy and reliability of the wiring in the junction box
With concealed wiring, the recess in the wall is made so large that only the junction box cover remains on the surface. When the outer - case is attached to the wall with dowel-nails or screws. Corrugated sleeves are immersed inside the box at least 2.5–3 cm through special openings that need to be freed from plastic partitions.
The installation procedure of the terminal box is as follows:
- Inside the box get all the necessary wires.
- With the help of terminal blocks, pads or caps made their connection. Spare lines and exposed wires are insulated.
- Everything neatly fits inside the box: it is important that the contacts remain securely connected.
- The lid closes all the way so that the rubber seal does not have free play and does not let air through.
Video: Bath wiring technology - hidden wiring and sockets
The perceptions of safety are different for people, so in each specific situation it is useful to refer to generally accepted sources are considered the "Rules for the Installation of Electrical Appliances" (PUE, Chapter 7.1), "Code of Regulations and Rules" (SNiP 2.08.01–89) and "State Standard" (GOST 50571. 11–96). The installation standards of electrification set out in them will save the bath from fire, and its owners from burns, injuries and other troubles.