How to legalize an equipped balcony and its glazing, to combine a room with a balcony, to equip the roof? Rules for the redevelopment and redevelopment of the apartment. Do I need permission and approval for installation of air conditioning on the facade of a residential building? Do you need permission of apartment owners, authorities to install the antenna, cables, air conditioning on the roof and the facade of the house? All these issues are regulated by the RF State Committee on Housing and Public Utilities and construction complex, Resolution No. 170 “On Approval of Norms and Rules for Technical Operation housing stock.
- 1 Main provisions
2 Types of housing
- 2.1 Private foundation
- 2.2 State housing stock
- 2.3 Municipal housing
- 2.4 Public housing
- 3 Housing Management
- 4 Legal and private individuals
- 5 Long-Term Technical Documents
- 6 Change in housing stock
7 Technical maintenance of the housing stock
- 7.1 Repair and maintenance
8 Performing maintenance and maintenance of housing stock
- 8.1 Maintenance of housing stock
- 8.2 Maintenance
9 Organization of technical inspection of residential buildings
- 9.1 Unscheduled and extraordinary checks
- 10 Technical maintenance of premises
- 11 Claims for failure
- 12 Planning and executing maintenance
13 Overhaul planning and execution
- 13.1 Repair work
- 13.2 Maintenance of residential buildings where major repairs are planned
14 Organization of seasonal exploitation
- 14.1 Stages of repair work
- 14.2 ARS
15 The maintenance of the local area and apartments
- 15.1 Rules and regulations for proper maintenance of premises
- 15.2 Organization of the maintenance of landings
- 15.3 Attic maintenance
- 15.4 The organization of the content of technical sub-fields and basements
- 15.5 Improvement of residential houses and houses
- 15.6 Pointers
- 15.7 House territory
- 15.8 The organization of cleaning. House cleaning
- 15.9 Cleaning in the summer
- 15.10 Cleaning in the winter
- 15.11 Features of cleaning in the winter in the cities of the northern region
- 15.12 Garbage collection and secondary waste, sanitary cleaning
- 15.13 Vines in houses
- 15.14 Landscaping of house plots
16 Structural repair and maintenance
- 16.1 Basement walls and foundations
- 16.2 Foundation repair
- 16.3 Sidewalks and blind areas
- 16.4 General repair
- 16.5 Basement operation
- 16.6 Walls
- 16.7 Panel connections
- 16.8 Wall moisture
- 16.9 Wooden walls
- 16.10 Facade decoration
- 16.11 Peaks, balconies, bay windows and loggias
- 16.12 Overlaps
- 16.13 Floors
- 16.14 Bulkheads
- 17.1 Rules of technical operation
- 17.2 Ruffled and combined roofs
18 Repair and maintenance of communication equipment
- 18.1 Thermal supply
- 18.2 Central heating system
The current rules and regulations for the operation of the housing stock are specified in accordance with the RF Decree No. 4218.1 “On the basis of the federal housing policy”. On approval of norms and rules for the technical preservation of housing and p. 53.
Provisions on the State Committee of the Russian Federation on the housing and communal and building complex, certified by the resolution of the RF Gosstroy No. 1289 “On the approval of standards and rules for technical conservation housing stock and specify the rules for the restoration, overhaul and maintenance of housing and utilities, technical inventory, maintenance and preservation of residential stock and are required to perform the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, local authorities, institutions of state supervision and control.
The effective rules and regulations specify the procedure and requirements for the repair and maintenance of housing stock with the aim of:
- Ensuring compliance with the established rules for the repair and maintenance of the housing stock or authorized organizations and managers of various executive forms engaged in servicing housing stock;
- implementation of a common technical policy in the residential sphere, ensuring the implementation of the rules of these regulations on repair and maintenance of houses, their communication systems and structural elements, as well as adjoining plots;
- ensuring the safety of the housing stock of any type of property.
In accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation No. 4218.1 "On the basis of the federal housing policy"housing stock is the aggregate of all housing regardless of the type of property, including specialized houses (hotels, shelters, dormitories, living rooms from the funds of the department for the temporary settlement of internally displaced persons and individuals, the building of the mobile office, the home for the elderly, recognized as refugees, boarding houses for veterans and disabled persons, and so on), residential premises, apartments, residential buildings, other residential premises in other buildings suitable for living.
Types of housing
A fund in the possession of legal entities (registered as private owners), acquired or built at their expense, including housing construction and housing organizations with a not fully paid share.
Fund owned by citizens: acquired and built houses and apartments, privatized residential buildings, individual, in the houses of individual partnerships of apartment owners, apartments in houses of housing and construction housing organizations with fully paid share, houses and apartments purchased in the possession of citizens on other grounds.
State housing stock
The fund is owned by the subjects of citizens and a departmental fund that has the full economic subordination of state authorities or the operational board of government organizations that are of the appropriate type property.
The departmental organization, which is in the state ownership of the Russian Federation and is in economic subordination government organizations or the operational board of government bodies that belong to the federal government an au pair.
The fund is owned by the city, district, territorial-administrative units, including the cities of St. Petersburg and Moscow, and departmental organizations that are under the operational management of municipal institutions or the full economic subordination of municipal organs.
Foundation owned by public organizations.
Individuals, public and non-governmental institutions and other voluntary associations of owners, tenants and tenants of premises in the houses of any type of property can take part in the management of the housing stock at the place of residence to protect their social and economic interests and rights, to take part in the selection of repair and maintenance companies.
Legal and private individuals
Legal entities and individuals should:
- Take care of the housing stock and land required for the operation of the housing stock;
- Use land without prejudice to other persons.
- To operate utility and residential premises and technical devices without infringing on housing and other freedoms and rights of other citizens;
- In time to make payment for utilities, housing, pay for housing loans;
- Produce prescribed by law environmental, sanitary and hygienic, operational and fire prevention, architectural and town planning rules.
Long-Term Technical Documents
In the list of technical documents for long-term storage are:
- executive plans for each construction and design and estimate documents;
- territory plan in the ratio of 1: 1000 with residential buildings and structures located on it;
- acts of the technical condition of the building for the transfer of the housing stock to another owner;
- acts of admission of residential houses from construction companies;
- executive circuits of ground loops;
- boiler logs, boiler house passports;
- schemes of house networks of main heating, sewage, water supply, electricity, gas, heat supply, etc .;
- passports for each land plot, apartment and house;
- elevator passport office.
The required list of documents, replaced in connection with the length of time of their operation, includes:
- acts of technical inspections;
- Acts of measurement of the ventilation system.
- inventories and estimates of work on overhaul and upcoming repairs;
- acts of measuring the resistance of electrical networks;
- tenants application logs.
Technical long storage documents are required be adjusted according to the degree of restoration or capital repairs, reassessment of the main departmental farms, changes in the technical condition and so on.
Change in housing stock
Housing owners or their authorized required to make changes to executive documents on time on the planning of a dwelling house, engineering equipment and structural elements appearing as a result of reconstruction, repairs, improvement of improvement, redevelopment and modernization with the correction of technical passports for land, buildings and houses.
The procedure and conditions for redevelopment (conversion, conversion), non-residential and residential premises and the improvement of improvement of residential premises.
Conversion of non-residential and residential premises can be made only after obtaining all permits.
The redevelopment of premises implies: the transfer of heating gas and plumbing units, the installation of household electric stoves instead of kitchen hearths or gas stoves, arrangement and alteration of located bathrooms, toilets, installation of new or replacement of located outlet and supply water pipes, electrical networks and equipment for the device "Jacuzzi", shower cabins, automatic washing machines of high power and other household and sanitary devices of the new generations.
Alteration of residential premises includes: the device and the transfer of door openings, redevelopment or device of the vestibules, disassembly and transfer of partitions, the device of additional bathrooms and kitchens, increase or disaggregation of multi-room apartments, the elimination of entrances to kitchens through rooms or apartments and dark kitchens, an increase in living space with the help of additional premises.
Alteration of apartments (premises), which worsens living or operating conditions individual citizens or the entire apartment or house are prohibited.
Redevelopment and re-equipment of apartments (rooms) and houses, which lead to the deformation of structures or violation of strength, violation functioning of communication systems and equipment installed on them, violation of fire-fighting equipment, reduction in the safety and appearance of facades are prohibited.
The emergency condition of the elements of communication equipment, its parts, individual structures, which is caused by non-compliance by the owner, tenant or tenant of the dwelling on his the reason eliminated by the service company.
The owner, who performed the unauthorized alteration of loggias and balconies, the refurbishment of the auxiliary and residential premises, installation or rearrangement of additional sanitary, technical and other equipment, should bring this room to its original position.
Technical maintenance of the housing stock
Technical maintenance of the housing stock includes the following elements.
- Relationships with suppliers and related companies;
- Operation organization;
- Any type of work with tenants and tenants. Repair and maintenance of communication systems and building structures of the house:
- maintenance, including emergency and dispatch;
- readiness for seasonal work.
- maintenance and planting of green space;
- cleaning of public places.
Repair and maintenance
Individuals who live in buildings of the state and municipal funds use housing in the manner specified by the housing and civil code.
Repair and maintenance of public spaces in high-rise residential buildings occur in the prescribed legal manner.
Performing maintenance and maintenance of housing stock
House maintenance implies work package on preservation in working condition of house systems and elements, the specified modes and characteristics of work of its constructions, technical designs and equipment.
The system of maintenance, maintenance and maintenance of the housing stock ensures the normal operation of communication systems and buildings during the prescribed time of operation of the house using the necessary financial and material resources.
Maintenance of housing stock
Maintenance of the housing stock includes maintenance work, condition monitoring, regulation, commissioning and operation of communication systems, and so on. Monitoring of the technical situation must be carried out through unscheduled and scheduled inspections.
Maintenance repairs include a complex of organizational, technical and construction activities. to remove faults equipment, components and communication systems at home to maintain performance.
Organization of technical inspection of residential buildings
The task of inspections is to establish the probable causes of the occurrence of defects and the elaboration of measures to eliminate them. The inspection process also monitors the maintenance and operation of the premises.
Annually in the process of spring inspection instruct owners, tenants and tenants of premises on the order of their operation and maintenance of communication equipment and fire safety rules.
The device for conducting surveys and inspections of homes is as follows:
- partial scheduled checks of communication equipment and structural parts are made by craftsmen or representatives of special services who provide for their repair and maintenance;
- general scheduled inspections, as well as unplanned ones - are carried out by the relevant housing maintenance agencies. During the inspection of cooperative houses, which are located on the technical maintenance of the housing maintenance institution, the commission must also include an employee of the housing and utilities board.
During inspections, much attention should be paid to those houses and their equipment and structures that have more than 60 percent physical wear and tear.
Routine inspection of residential buildings should be carried out:
- partial - inspections involving the inspection of individual parts of the premises or the building;
- common in the process of which going home inspection in general, including exterior beautification, engineering equipment and designs.
General inspections are required to occur twice: in the autumn (before the start of the heating season) and spring.
Unscheduled and extraordinary checks
After strong winds, rains, floods, heavy snowfall and other phenomena of this nature, which cause damage to certain parts of the house, as well as in case of accidents on external communications or during the detection of deformation of engineering systems and breakdowns of a communication device that violate the conditions of effective operation, are required to undergo unplanned and extraordinary checks.
Results of inspections must be reflected in special journals to account for the technical condition of the house: certificates, passports, magazines.
In the inspection reports, the damage and malfunctions detected during the inspections (extraordinary, partial, general), as well as the technical position of the building or structure elements are displayed.
The results of the autumn home readiness checks for the winter period are displayed in the building readiness log.
The results of general inspections of the state of the housing stock, which are carried out periodically, are displayed in acts.
Deformations identified during the inspection, defects in equipment or structures that may reduce the stability or bearing capacity of a building or structure, disruption of normal operation or collapse equipment, must be removed by the owner with the involvement of the company on the maintenance of the housing stock or with another, attracted to perform a certain type of work by the company in a given time frame.
The housing maintenance company is obliged to take all measures to organize the safety of tenants, to prevent the subsequent appearance of deformations, as well as immediately inform the owner of it or his face.
Inspection of maintenance of housing stock on the basis of acts of inspection and inspections due in a month:
- find out the scope of work for the upcoming repair (according to the results of the spring inspection for the current year and the autumn inspection - for the next year), and also to reveal damages and malfunctions, the removal of which needs major repairs;
- to make a list (following the results of the spring inspection) of measures and find out the scope of work that is needed to prepare the house and its communication systems for operation in the coming winter period;
- distribute recommendations to owners, tenants and tenants of privatized residential apartments to perform ongoing repairs at their own expense taking into account current legislation;
- find out readiness (following the results of the autumn inspection) of all houses for operation in the winter.
Removing small faults, as well as adjusting and adjusting communication equipment and sanitary, technical devices are obliged, as a rule, to be conducted by the residential maintenance institution stock.
Technical maintenance of premises
The list of housing maintenance works performed by the housing maintenance agency is in Appendix 4.
For the control and management of the technical situation of the housing stock, regional dispatch stations (RDS) or joint control stations (ODS) are formed into groups of houses or micro-districts. For any SLM Sets the list of monitored parameters and objects dispatching engineering systems.
Deadlines and scope of work are displayed in the schedule, compiled by the year, month and week.
Means of dispatching and automation of communication systems, means of communication, meters, monitoring and measuring devices Must be installed according to the instructions of the manufacturer for projects developed by a specialized company and, accordingly, to ensure the maintenance of the necessary modes of operation of communication systems, timely transmission of signals about accidents or violations of the functions of work, to measure the performance of the systems for automatic or visual monitoring of its work, full connection between the control room and owners, tenants and tenants of privatized residential buildings, as well as the control room with emergency services and technical services service.
Claims for failure
Applications for breakdown of structures or communication systems must be considered on the day they are received, no later than on the second day, their correction should be arranged. In cases where it takes a long time to fix a breakdown or spare parts are not available, then you need to report the decisions taken to the applicant. The same measures are required to be taken and on applications that are received using the dispatch communication system or by telephone.
Emergency applications are corrected in terms that are specified in Appendix No. 2. Applications that are related to the safe provision of accommodation are corrected as quickly as possible.
United dispatch services are required to keep records of applications in separate books to promptly remove damages and malfunctions of engineering systems, building structures in apartments and other elements of the house, monitor the quality and timing of execution.
Planning and executing maintenance
Home repair planning is required to be in accordance with the technical guidelines for technology and performance. maintenance of houses and technical regulations for planning routine maintenance of residential multi-storey buildings. Maintenance repairs are carried out by housing maintenance companies by contracting agencies.
An approximate list of works that are current repair is in Appendix 7.
The duration of maintenance should be determined by the rules for each type of repair work of equipment and communications.
The repair time should be taken in the range of 3-6 years, taking into account the group of local conditions, physical deterioration and capital of the house.
The inventory of repair work for each residential building is included in the annual technical repair plan, agreed and being developed with the owner of the housing stock, the head or authorized organization for the maintenance of the housing stock in specified time.
Current repair of residential communication systems (hot and cold water supply systems, ventilation and heating systems, gas supply, electricity supply, sewage), located in the technical operation of specialized executive utilities organizations, is carried out by these institutions.
In houses to be demolished or scheduled for overhaul over the next 5 years, current repair is necessary restrict work to ensure normal living conditions (setting up communication systems, preparing for winter and spring work).
Performed by the repair of the building is subject to acceptance by the commission, which includes representatives of the housing maintenance company and the owners of the housing stock.
Overhaul planning and execution
The organization of capital repairs should be carried out in accordance with the current regulations.
During the overhaul it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive elimination of breakdowns of all worn out equipment and elements of the house, changing, replacing or restoring, installing more economical and durable, improving the performance of the housing stock, is carried out economically appropriate and technically feasible modernization of residential buildings with the installation of water, heat, electric energy, gas metering devices and ensuring rational consumption electricity. An approximate list of works produced at the expense of funds that are intended for major repairs, is listed in Appendix 8.
Planned start and finish time must be established by the rules of the duration of the overhaul public and residential buildings and urban facilities.
Repairs in buildings that are subject to demolition, improvement and restoration of which produce impractical, over the next 10 years, it is possible to hold in a number of exceptions only in volume, which the ensures sanitary and safe living conditions in them for the remaining time.
The nature and extent of design estimates, the procedure for developing home repairs, and the deadlines for submitting them to the contracting company must be established in accordance with the regulations.
Maintenance of residential buildings where major repairs are planned
During the maintenance of buildings that are prepared for a major overhaul with partial eviction of tenants, the following additional measures should be observed:
- dangerous area barrage;
- the owner of the house must inform the residents about the start and completion dates of the repair;
- switching off gas, electric, sanitary and technical equipment in the relocated houses;
- prevention of entry and protection from unauthorized persons in relocated homes.
All houses in disrepair must be provided with security systemssignaling their destruction.
Organization of seasonal exploitation
The task of preparing the housing and communal services buildings for seasonal work is to meet the deadlines and quality of the maintenance work done. (repair and maintenance) of the housing stock, which ensures the legal norms of tenants' residence and the operating conditions of communication systems in the winter time.
During the preparation of housing for work in the winter period is required:
- organize proper waterproofing of the basement, basement walls and foundations and their connection with adjacent structures, attic and basement structures, staircases, the operability of fire hydrants, machine lift offices;
- bring to a technically normal local area with the provision of unimpeded output thawed and atmospheric water from the slopes (inputs), from the blind area, into the basement and their window openings;
- correct faults of facades, walls, partitions of attic and technical subfloors (basements), roofs, door and window structures, passages, as well as gas flues, chimneys, heating furnaces, internal electrical, water and heat supply schemes, as well as gas systems heaters.
Stages of repair work
The time of the beginning and completion of the preparation for the winter season of each residential building, elevator heat point, heat point and boiler room certified by local government (at the suggestion of the institution that serves the specified housing stock), taking into account the completion of all work in the eastern and northern regions - to 1 September, in the southern regions - by October 1, in the central regions - until September 15, including the performance of test furnaces of furnaces and highways heating. Control over the process of preparation for the winter period is carried out by state inspectorates, the owners of the housing stock and their proxies, and local authorities.
Schedule and plan for the implementation of the preparation of the housing stock and its communication systems for operation in the winter compiled by the owner of the housing stock or company on its maintenance and certified by local authorities on the basis of the results of the spring inspection and deficiencies identified in the past tense.
During the preparation of the housing stock for work in the winter, the following is organized:
- alerting emergency services (equipment, vehicles, inventory and tools, communications, staff briefings and materials);
- retraining and training of employees of heating units, boilers, maintenance workers and emergency service workers, janitors;
- repairs in unheated buildings sewer and water pipe insulation, fire water pipe;
- restoration and preparation of in-house systems for hot and cold water supply, central ventilation and heating, sewage, gas with indicating the location of switches and valves (for electricians and fitters to eliminate breakdowns and accidents of intrahouse communication systems).
If there is water in the basement, it is necessary to deflate it, to insulate the water meter, to disassemble or turn off the irrigation water supply, and also to provide the permanent work of the well inspection of the yard network, sewer slopes and general slopes in the ends of the house from the assembly pipeline located in the basement (technical underground).
Preparing for winter operation (hydraulic testing, commissioning, calibration and repair) subject to a full range of equipment, which provides uninterrupted supply of heat to houses (house networks, boiler rooms, ventilation systems, heating systems, local and group heat points in houses).
Knots, thermal points and boiler rooms must be provided instrumentation, automation equipment, wiring diagrams of heating systems, hot water supply, cold-water supply, control shut-off equipment, designs indicating the operation of the equipment under different operating modes (descent, make-up, filling of water in heating systems, etc.), forced-air and exhaust ventilation, regime cards, technical data sheets of units, device defect logs, magazines records of indicators.
Must be commissioning of intra-quarter systems with adjustment of the calculated cross section of the throttling equipment at the elevator thermal unit.
Gas equipment is obliged to adjust pressure regulators and safety and shut-off valves for winter time.
Equipment systems, fire-fighting devices, pumping stations must be equipped with backup and main equipment, automated activation of auxiliary pumps in case of main equipment failure was organized, regularly and corrected.
In unheated buildings, in preparation for the winter season, it is necessary to warm the fire hydrant, find out the condition and repair the insulation of the DHW and DH pipes, sewers and water mains.
The start of the heating season is indicated by local authorities.
Products in technical undergrounds and basements in the winter season can be closed only in case of strong cold snaps.
The readiness of residential buildings of housing and communal services to work in the winter should be confirmed by the presence of:
- acts on the readiness of the work of instrumentation and automation of the safety of communication equipment and boiler houses;
- the act of readiness of the building for operation in winter time (Appendix No. 9);
- provision of fuel to residents and boiler houses prior to the beginning of the heating season: at least 70% of the need for heating, liquid - taking into account the availability of warehouses, but not less than the average consumption for one month; stock dropout for dressing tracks, taking into account not less than 3-5 m for 1 thousand m .;
- acts of serviceability and technical condition of fire equipment;
- acts of readiness for the winter period with an assessment of the quality of readiness of apartments and houses for winter time and the act on all objects, as well as acts for adjustment, flushing, testing of heating systems, water supply;
- acts on the preparation of cleaning equipment and machinery.
Until September 15, all acts are surrendered and approved.
In the winter time is necessary provide a permanent job wells inspection of the yard network, sewer slopes and general slopes at the ends of the houses from the common pipeline located in the basement.
In summer, the following work must be done:
- on thermal systems - revision of fittings, flushing of systems, replacement of insufficient or restoration of destroyed insulation pipes in basements, underground channels and chambers (technical underground), elimination of periodic and permanent clogs channels;
- for boilers - removing gaps in the lining of chimneys and boilers, prepare a contingent of employees and make the delivery of fuel: solid - taking into account 70% the need for heating in the season, liquid for filling warehouses, but no less than the average supply for a month, revision of equipment and fittings, automation and instrumentation devices. The calculation of the required amount of fuel must be made taking into account the existing legal and regulatory documents. Fuel storage should be carried out in accordance with the specified rules and regulations;
- availability of basic fire extinguishing tools.
- for hot water and water supply systems - replacement of insufficient or restoration of destroyed insulation of pipes in attics, basements, staircases and indoor sanitary facilities, revision of taps and other stop valves of air collectors and expanders. If non-heating of radiators of batteries is detected, it is necessary to make their hydropneumatic cleaning. Upon completion of the work, the entire range of equipment for heat supply is subject to operational adjustment during the trial heating;
- for cleaning equipment for janitors and equipment - replacement, repair, inspection;
- on thermal units - revision of equipment and fittings (heaters, pumps, etc.);
- clarification to the owners, tenants and tenants of non-residential and residential buildings on the rules for preparing residential premises for to the winter period (replacement of broken glasses, installation of gaskets in the vestibules of door and window openings, etc. d)
- delivery of screenings for dressing tracks and salt or its equivalent.
After the end of the season of heating equipment heating stations, networks and boilers, all heating systems must be tested by hydraulic pressure in accordance with the specified norms.
Identified during the test defects must be corrected, then repeated tests are done. Testing of heating networks occur in accordance with the specified standards.
Functioning and organization of emergency repair service (ARS), integrated dispatching system (SLM).
SLM organized in residential areas to monitor the operation of communication systems microdistrict buildings and residents' applications processing for the removal of minor damages and equipment malfunctions for the normal functioning of the house. More than this, the task of the SLM includes the prompt adoption of measures to organize the safety of the population in the polling stations emergency condition of residential building systems, timely cleaning of house adjoining possessions, cleaning the roof from ice and snow cover.
SLM monitors the operation of such communication equipment:
- hot water supply and heating systems (boiler rooms, heating units, elevator points, boiler rooms);
- gas supply systems;
- sewage systems, cold water supply systems (water pumps, pumping units);
- code closing devices in residential buildings;
- electric panel residential buildings, courtesy light courtyard areas, entrances and stairwells.
More than this, the dispatch system organizes:
- two-way loud-speaking communication with subscribers (janitors, residents, elevator passengers), housing maintenance agency, offices, objects of other communication equipment (fire alarm, smoke protection, fire water supply and Further);
- gas pollution level of collectors and technical subfields;
- an alarm system during the opening of the doors of attics, basements, panel board, machine rooms of elevators;
- means and installation of automatic fire protection of high-rise buildings.
The operation of the SLM takes place around the clock. Service SLM produces continuous monitoring for the work of communication equipment, notes his work in the relevant books and immediately removes minor accidents and malfunctions. About all interruptions and accidents in the operation of sewage systems, water supply, electricity and heat urgently reported to the emergency service housing maintenance organizations, as well as to special companies that serve plumbing, gas equipment, elevators and etc.
One of the main tasks of SLM is the execution of works and reception at the request of residents. Call for applications by direct communication with the population over the phone, as well as using direct communication on the talkers that are installed in the elevator cars and building entrances.
Monitoring of work and registration of applications of tenants is carried out using the log of applications of tenants or using an automated accounting system.
For the organization of effective work in the SLM must be a set of working documentation for each object, facilities and networks, plans underground systems, diagrams of all shut-off and disconnecting nodes of equipment systems, sets of keys to attic, basement and working premises buildings.
2.7.6. A senior SLM dispatcher should provide:
- once a week, the implementation of preventive maintenance of communication lines, devices and equipment without disassembling the inside of devices;
- once a month assesses the work of the service company regarding the performance of repairs at the request of the public;
- once a day conduct inspection of the dispatch system, while paying great attention to serviceability on the remote alarm lamps, time relays, electrical photo switches, sensors gas pollution;
- refueling tapes into devices for lubrication, drawing diagrams, filling devices with ink, etc .;
- replacement of burnt out lamps on the controller’s console;
- analyzes the incoming applications and the reasons for their failure;
- in case of breakdown of communication lines, equipment or instruments, the application for repair to the necessary specialized company.
ARSs are organized to promptly correct failures, major breakdowns, structural accidents and communication equipment for homes, facilities and networks, housing restoration and organization of normal performance.
Objects of service ARS are residential buildings and public institutionslocated in the neighborhood, regardless of the type of property. The composition of the ARS is completed taking into account the technical condition and the volume of serviced housing stock.
At the time of receipt of signals of damage or accidents of sewage systems, plumbing, telephone network, heating, input cabinets and transformer substations, underground grid and electric power networks, gas equipment and gas pipelines emergency service should report to certain specialized engineering organizations, their emergency services and to monitor the performance of the required work by the above services until the complete elimination of accidents.
Material and emergency workers must all the time be fully prepared, providing an urgent departure of workers to the scene at any time.
In the building of the emergency service are required to be: addresses and a list of institutions, a diagram of the area, landline numbers, an accident record book, home addresses of department heads, their office and home phone numbers.
On public holidays and non-working hours of ARS, together with DSO for the maintenance of housing stock organize timely correction of communication system failures in residential buildings and serviced areas, and also takes technical and organizational decisions during the threat of natural disasters (heavy snowfalls, hurricanes, sharp decreases in temperature, icing of roads, etc.); the measures taken are reported to the leadership of the senior DSO and the leadership of the local authority self government.
- Correction of accidental breakdowns of sewage, heating and plumbing that are serviced or owned by housing companies serviced by ARS;
- the contents of the attached ARS equipment in working condition and its operation for its intended purpose.
- urgent clearing of litters of garbage chutes and sewage of intrahouse buildings;
- after hours public safety organization in identifying the emergency situation of building structures of the house by fencing dangerous areas, the destruction of hanging structures, which in state of emergency or the implementation of these measures with the help of local authorities for the relocation of tenants from buildings that threaten safety accommodation;
- repair of damage to internal electrical supply systems owned by housing companies serviced by the ARS.
The maintenance of the local area and apartments
Rules and regulations for proper maintenance of premises
Engineering and technical staff of housing maintenance agencies during periodic inspections of outbuildings and living quarters and the regulation of communications equipment must pay attention in the premises on the technical condition of the equipment and the barrier structures, sanitary condition and temperature and humidity conditions.
Apartments should be kept clean at the rate of air exchange, air humidity and temperature in accordance with the existing rules and regulations.
Removal of condensate in kitchens and bathrooms, on sewer pipes and plumbing it is necessary to achieve frequent airing of rooms with fully open ventilation holes. If the above measures are insufficient, the pipelines must be waterproofed and insulated.
To increase air exchange in the rooms local supply equipment should be used (channels in the surface of the walls, under-window inflow systems, ventilation channels in the arrangement of furnaces, etc.). Tenants of apartments are recommended to install fans in exhaust openings.
For the device necessary temperature and humidity conditions of external walls can not be: in the first 2 years operating, hang paintings and carpets on the outer walls, put bulky furniture close to them, especially in outside corners.
The use of electric and gas stoves to heat a home is unacceptable.
Organization of the maintenance of landings
The organization of the maintenance of landings includes:
- overhaul in the complex selective or overhaul;
- equipping rooms for concierge with telephone;
- maintenance (unscheduled and scheduled inspections, preparation for seasonal work, routine maintenance of home equipment, communication systems and structural parts);
- maintenance of refuse chutes;
- events that provide a regulatory-humidity regime on staircases;
- lift maintenance;
- maintenance of self-closing devices and automated locking equipment for entrance doors;
- list of duty at porches;
- remote control service.
The organization of maintenance and maintenance of the housing stock is obliged to provide:
- sufficient temperature and humidity conditions on the landings;
- necessary sanitary organization of landings;
- working condition of heating devices, building structures and pipelines that are located on landings.
Doors and windows of landings must have tight fitting porches with the installation of gaskets seals.
Staircases must be periodically ventilated using window sashes, transoms or vents simultaneously on the first and last floor, as well as with the help of ventilation shafts and channels.
Staircases must have air circulation and air temperature in accordance with established rules and regulations.
Illumination of staircases must be taken according to established standards.
The periods of the main work that are performed when cleaning the landings should be determined in a specific order.
During the dry cleaning of the landings, vacuum systems and cleaning of the floor of staircases and spans, as well as sweeping heating devices, window sills, walls and floors, etc. work must be done at least once every five days, and walls at least twice in year. Wet cleaning in this case should be carried out monthly.
Painting of landings should be made anhydrous with high-quality, improved compositions:
- not allowed in areas of curvature of lines, conjugation of surfaces, painting with high-quality paint in different colors;
- no smudges, stains, peeling, or x-rays below the layers of paint are allowed;
- Surfaces painted with anhydrous paint formulations must have a matte, glossy or one-colored surface.
The time period for the repair of entrances must be respected once every 4-6 years, taking into account the physical deterioration and classification of the house.
In the houses of wood, ceilings, walls of corridors and staircases from the inside must be covered with flame retardant or plastered.
Exterior doors to stairwells and entrances required to be equipped with travel stops (stops), as well as self-closing devices (closers).
To reduce heat losses and noise from door impacts, during the absence of self-closing equipment in the door porch, it is necessary to install elastic gasket seals.
In front of the door it is necessary to put iron grates and scrubbers for cleaning shoes from debris and dirt.
Stair rails and exterior areas near the entrance doors must be systematically cleaned of ice and snow.
In apartment buildings (more than ten floors) in non-smoked landings, doors must have automated door openers without locking equipment. Entrances from the landings to the roof or attic must meet the established design standards.
Operation of landings, as well as premises under the first flight of stairs to accommodate storerooms, workshops and other purposes is prohibited.
Under the staircase in the basement and the first floor it is possible to arrange only rooms for water meters. nodes, control units of the main heating and electrical panels blocked by fireproof constructions.
Installation on the stairwells of inventory, equipment, household items and other items is prohibited. Entrances to attics and landings, as well as passages to fire fighting equipment and equipment should not be blocked.
In identifying breakdowns of gas pipes that go to the landing, you need promptly notify emergency services, institutions for the operation of gas equipment and at the same time organize active airing of landings.
Cabinets with electrical measuring devices and electrical shields, as well as electrical installation niches located on landings, must be permanently closed.
The housing maintenance agencies are obliged to ensure:
- cleanliness and possibility of passage to any elements of the room in the attic;
- temperature and humidity indicator of attics, which prevents the formation of condensate on the surface of obstructing structures.
Attic must have the necessary temperature and humidity conditions:
- in warmed attic rooms - taking into account the calculation, but not less than 12 degrees Celsius;
- in unheated attic rooms - taking into account the calculation, which excludes the formation of moisture on the barrier structures, but not more than 4 degrees Celsius air temperature outside.
Lofts must have ladders and walkways for access to the roof, hatches and doors with tight-fitting shutters.
Attic should not be overwhelmed with household equipment and other things, as well as construction debris.
Roof hatches or entrance doors (for attics with expansion, pressure and spare tanks) must be equipped with gaskets seals, insulated, permanently locked (key set must be kept at the SLM dispatcher or in the master technician’s room housing maintenance organizations, as well as in one of the upper floor apartment located nearby), for this is an inscription on the door.
Entrance to the roof and attic must be allowed only to employees of organizations for the organization of the housing stock, directly engaged in technical supervision and performing repair work, as well as employees of operational services whose equipment is located in the attic and on the roof.
In the warmed attic premises it is necessary to produce:
- whitewashing the internal surfaces of ventilation shafts, walls, chimneys, and ceiling once every 3 years;
- complete attic disinfection when identifying insects;
- cleaning the garret from garbage at least once a year with cleaning of metal nets at the entrance of the mine and at the head of the ventilation channels.
The operation of attics for storage rooms, for drying clothes and for workshops is prohibited.
The organization of the content of technical sub-fields and basements
The housing maintenance agency must provide:
- Protection of the basement from the penetration of dogs, cats, rodents.
- the cleanliness and ability to approach any elements of the technical underground and basement premises;
- temperature and humidity indicator of technical subfields and basements, which prevents the formation of condensate on the surfaces of the barrier systems.
Technical undergrounds and basements must have temperature and humidity conditions taking into account the established rules and regulations.
Technical underground and basement must be constantly aired throughout the year with the help of ventilation holes in the basement and windows, exhaust ducts or other devices when organizing no less than a single air circulation.
Airways in the basement of the house must be open. Airing of the basement must be done in non-frosty and dry weather.
If condensation forms on the surfaces of the communications or mold develops remove sources of air humidity and organize active airing technical underground or basement through doors and windows, equipping them with window designs or door leaves with blinds or gratings.
In the underground and basement with blank walls, if necessary, you need to punch at least two holes in the basement ventilation in each part of the house, equipping them in opposite parts and equipping with exhaust fans or louvered lattices.
External doors to the basement and technical underground must be locked for a key (the keys are in the organizations for the preservation of housing, at the janitor, the SLM, employees who live in these houses), the location of the keys is inscribed on the door.
Access to transit communication systems, which are located on the premises, of representatives specialized organizations for the preservation of municipal municipal services and housing stock must be provided daily.
It is forbidden to equip warehouses of explosive and combustible substances in basements, as well as to have other economic warehouses, when the entrance to these premises is made from common landings.
All openings, channels and openings of the technical underground must be equipped with nets (cell diameter 5 mm), which protect buildings from the passage of rodents and other small animals.
Taking into account sanitary requirements and norms, the organization for the preservation of the housing stock is obliged periodically disinfect and disinfect on the destruction of insects and rodents in public places of use, technical undergrounds, basements.
Improvement of residential houses and houses
On residential facades of houses, taking into account the project, certified by the district, city architectural service of Gosstroy, signposts are given for the name of the square, the lane, the street, and so on.
Signs with the name of the rooms of the entrances and apartments that are located in this entrance must be located at the entrance to the landing or entrance. They must be located in the same type in any staircase, neighborhood and house.
Pointers with apartment numbers must be placed on the door of any apartment (and you must take into account the numbering of apartments established for this household).
Places for finding fire hydrants, pointers for finding geodetic marks, polygonometric pointers (wall rappers) must be installed on the basement of houses, chambers, wells and sewer lines and water supply network. Places for the location of the underground gas pipeline and other indicators for finding household objects, various signaling devices, possibly set on the facades of houses subject to the preservation of its finishes.
Flag holders should be located on the facade of any house certified by the district, city architectural service of Gosstroy.
Repair of the above plates and flag holders are required to carry out organizations for the preservation of housing stock as needed. For the health and safety of the signs are required to answer the company that installed them.
Installation of memorial plaques on the facades of houses, explaining the names of some squares, city driveways, streets, possibly by decision of local governments.
Institutions for the preservation of housing stock are required to post in a place accessible to the public, lists of such organizations with a description of their phone numbers and addresses:
- district or city housing authority;
- local government;
- housing and inspection state bodies;
- police stations;
- fire protection;
- gas department services;
- house-hold emergency services, whose duties are to eliminate accidents in residential buildings;
- epidemiological and sanitary station.
The housing maintenance agencies are obliged to monitor the prevention of:
- hanging carpets, clothes, linen and other items on vacant land that overlook the city passage;
- lumbering of loggias with household items (firewood, tare, furniture, etc.);
- unauthorized construction of small courtyards (fences, garages), alterations to loggias and balconies;
- washing cars in the local area;
- blocking of the yard plot with household and construction waste, metal scrap, ash, slag and other waste;
- painting window covers on the outside with paint (choice of colors for metal-plastic windows), which differs in color from the design for this house;
- fasteners to the walls of the house of various signs, pendants, flagpoles, stretch marks, pointers and other devices, installation of satellite antennas and air conditioners without the necessary permission;
- pouring slops into yards, dropping out manure, food and other garbage wastes, as well as burning or burying them in yards.
Temporary warehousing of building materials in the household area is possible only if the fire passages are safe, the windows of the apartments are not darkened and the plantations are preserved.
Warehouse container shopping complexes and other tenants who are in residential buildings in the open area of the household is prohibited.
The home territory of any household must have:
- sports and playgrounds with landscaping and the required equipment of small architectural forms for children's winter and summer holidays;
- place for adults;
- household territory for cleaning carpets and clothes, drying clothes and other household items.
On the site there must be rods for drying clothes, pillars with a device for drying clothes, a box of sand, hangers, a table with a bench and a bin for garbage. The site must be blocked with hedge. Improvement and arrangement of sites, design elements for recreation areas and others must be carried out taking into account the established decree.
Location and arrangement on the territory of the organization for the preservation of housing stock of places for walking dogs, possible in consultation with relevant agencies in regulatory and legal order.
The organization of cleaning. House cleaning
Organizing the cleaning of gardens, grounds, roads, yards, sidewalks, inter-quarter and yard driveways of territories obliged to be made by housing maintenance organizations; clean sidewalks can specialized companies.
Areas that are not allowed for cleaning cars, must be manually cleaned prior to the start of car operation, it is allowed to throw snow into the lane removed by vehicles.
On the departure and exit sections of the cleaning equipment ramps of asphalt concrete are required on the sidewalk or local reduction of the side stone. The size of the ramp should be more than 50 cm wide vehicles.
Housing Preservation Companies must create a free approach to manholes of survey wells and adjustment units by communication networks, as well as to fire supply cranes (reservoirs, fire hydrants) located in the serviced site.
Equipment and materials in the courtyards must be stored in specially equipped areas.
The time period for sidewalk harvesting is indicated by the local government, taking into account the intensity of pedestrian traffic on the walkways.
Pavement paths with a width of more than 3.5 meters, as well as courtyards and inner driveways must be removed technically transportwhich is intended for the carriageway of streets (with permissible bearing surfaces of the road).
Cleaning the area near the house is obliged to proceed in the following sequence: first of all clean, and in in case of high slippery conditions and icing, sprinkle screened out walkways, sidewalks, and after the yard plots.
3.6.9. Cleaning, in addition to snow removal, produced in case of snowfall, should be carried out in a certain mode, in the evening and morning time.
On class I paths, mechanical cleaning at high speeds (8-9 km / h) is possible with the condition of safe movement of pedestrians.
Mechanical cleaning of the house allowed to do in the daytime with the speed of automotive technology up to four km / h.
The amount of cleaning work in winter and summer should be determined by the area, taking into account the method of the house adjoining plot indicated in the technical passport of the land plot or residential building (or at home).
Cleaning in the summer
Household cleaning in the summertime: washing, sweeping or watering by hand or with the help of special machines must be done mainly in the late evening and early morning hours. It is necessary to carry out washing of paths only on open paths, which directly border the plotic section and in the direction from the house to the roadway.
The cleaning of the paths must be completed before the execution of this work on the roadway; for this, the time for cleaning the paths must be related to the schedule for driving watering cars.
Watering the sidewalks in the summer must occur as neededbut at least twice a day.
If there are specific local conditions that cause high contamination, the frequency of cleaning work can be taken up to 3 times.
Periodic time for cleaning work depends on the activity of movement and is indicated in the relevant decree.
The process of cleaning the territories in the summer is obliged to end on time.
Cleaning in the winter
Periodic cleaning time for cleaning the tracks during snowfall (snow sweeping, shifting). The accumulated snow on the roofs is obliged to throw off to the ground as necessary and to be thrown into the trail strip, and on large sidewalks to pile into piles.
Cleaning of coverings during the absence of snowfall from snow of descent must occur in the early morning hours automotive technology with a plow-brush construction, the periodic execution time once every few days, taking into account the class of sidewalks.
The snow to be cleaned must move from the footpaths to the carriageway to the Sled strip, and in yard areas to the snow storage area.
Moved from inside entrances snow must be put in shafts and pilesparallel to the side stone or laid along the passage with the help of rotary snow cleaners.
On footpaths more than 6 meters wide, separated from the roadway by lawns, it is possible to move the snow on the shaft to the pavement center for further harvesting.
The process of laying snow in piles and trees should be completed on the sidewalks of classes 1-2 no later than 6 hours from the end of the snowfall, and in other territories - no later than 11 hours.
The places of yards and sidewalks, which are covered with compacted snow, must clean up as soon as possible, most often rippers and cleavers compacted snow. Cleaning and raking cleavage must be carried out together with chipping or immediately after it and fit with the snow on certain areas.
Snow, which is collected on intra-block passages, in the courtyards, taking into account local conditions on separately located streets, it is allowed to lay on free territories and on lawns while ensuring the safety of various plantings.
Snow during manual cleaning of intra-block (cobbled and asphalt) sidewalks and passages must be completely removed under the scraper. During the absence of advanced coatings snow must be removed under the engine, leaving part of the snow for its further compaction and treading.
At considerable slippery conditions, the dressing of road pavement with a salt-salt mixture should occur with the help of distributors with allowance for 0.3-0.5 kg / meter.
The execution time of the road surface coating with a sand-salt mixture of the main areas should not be more than 1.4 hours, and the completion time - 3 hours.
Loosened after treatment, ice formation must be moved or removed by plow-brush snow cleaners, preventing them from falling on the lawns, under trees or on open ground.
Coating is necessary conduct medium grained or coarse sand, which does not contain clay impurities and stones. The sand must be sifted through a sieve with 5 mm cross-section holes and pre-mixed with table salt in the amount of 6-9% of the total weight of the sand.
With the arrival of spring, the institutions for the preservation of the housing stock are obliged to organize:
- general cleaning of courtyards after melting snow, removing and collecting debris, remaining ice and snow;
- periodic thawing of melt water to the receiving wells and manholes of storm sewer;
- clearing and washing the grooves to ensure water outlet in areas where it is necessary for normal removal of melt water.
Features of cleaning in the winter in the cities of the northern region
In settlements with heavy blizzards, snowfalls and snow drifts must be pre-defined snow zones, developed and produced measures that reduce these snow formations.
Road surfaces must be fully repaired before the arrival of cold weather, removed items and materials that may contribute to the appearance of drifts or cause a malfunction of snow cleaners.
Periodic time for cleaning the snow tracks with significant intense snowfall and snow transport outside depending on their class, is determined by the table, cleaning is reduced in certain cases and should occur constantly.
In this case snow can be stored on large sidewalks while maintaining a free strip for pedestrians with a width of at least 2.5 meters.
Clearing the roads of settlements during long snowfalls with an activity of more than 7 mm / h, significant snow transport and other extreme conditions, must be carried out in accordance with the emergency event.
Garbage collection and secondary waste, sanitary cleaning
Housing preservation institutions are obliged to provide:
- systematic monitoring of the sanitary condition and timely cleaning of the site;
- installation in the departmental territory of collections for solid garbage, and in non-canalized houses to have, in addition, cesspits or collections for liquid waste;
- free entry and lighting near sites for the installation of garbage containers and containers;
- the organization of garbage disposal and control over the execution of the schedule of waste disposal;
- holding among the tenants popular outreach on the organization of cleaning the territory;
- maintenance of garbage containers and waste containers in proper condition (in addition to bunkers and containers that are on the balance of other organizations) without contamination of the territory and overflow.
Household waste must be collected in:
- tanks up to 800 liters - for residential buildings with more than 200 people;
- portable steel waste bins up to 100 liters under a canopy for houses with up to 200 people.
In the role of a temporary measure, during the absence of steel dumpsters, possible arrangement of containers for bulky waste and removable wooden boxes without bottom with loading hatches 5x5 cm.
Temporary garbage collections must be tight, and covers and walls are painted with resistant dyes.
Painting of all steel waste bins must occur annually at least 2 times - in the fall and spring.
All kinds of garbage collection containers must be on asphalt or concrete ground, most often with a fence of conventional reinforced concrete slabs or other materials with planting near the site of plantings.
The area for garbage collectors on wheels must be equipped with a ramp from the driveway and curb or barrier height of 9-11 cm, which eliminates the possibility of rolling capacity on the carriageway part.
Entrances to the sites where stationary waste bins and containers are located are required to be illuminated and have road coverage, taking into account the car's turn and the release of the boom of the manipulator or lift container.
When installing on site up to 6 portable containers for garbage must be ensured their delivery to the area of the entrance of garbage trucks.
Containers for garbage collection should be installed at a distance of not less than 25 meters from the doors and windows of houses, but not more than 110 meters from the exit entrances.
The capacity and number of waste bins in the yard is determined in the established rules and regulations.
Disposal of solid waste in non-canalized households must be carried out separately in small metal containerswhich are obliged to be taken out by residents at a specified time to the place of collection of the garbage truck.
In case of complication of operation of iron waste bins at low temperatures it is possible to use removable wooden boxes without bottom with a capacity of up to 1 meter, placed on asphalt or concrete territory.
To collect slops and liquid waste in areas of non-sewer households you need to arrange dumps, most often combined with a common cesspool and yard restrooms.
In public restrooms the room must have smooth floors and wallswhich allow their washing. Restrooms must have exhaust ventilation and electric and natural lighting. It is allowed to equip the inner non-heated lavatories, as well as warm lavatories with a toilet with a drain from a bucket.
Discharge of toilet bowls of non-sewage latrines with the help of water pipes is prohibited.
Sink hoppers are required to have loading opening hatches with lattices under them with a cross section of up to 25 millimeters.
Pouring slops and waste collection in iron garbage bins is prohibited. Wet waste that is deposited on the lattices of waste pans is obliged to be transferred by the janitors in the garbage collection containers only at the time of arrival of the garbage disposal vehicle.
The volume of grapes during cleaning once a month should be determined taking into account one tenant (or three people who come to work):
- in yard dumps and latrines with raking - 0.26-0.36 meters;
- with a toilet bucket drain from a bucket - 0.25-0.27 meters;
- in lavatories without flush - 0.1 meters.
In other cases, it is necessary to add 25% for uneven filling.
Vines in houses
The depth of the cesspits is necessary to take 1.3-3.2 meters, taking into account certain conditions.
The ridges must be waterproof, concrete, brick or wooden with the necessary arrangement of a “lock” made of mint and greasy clay with a layer of 0.35 meters both under the bottom of the sump and around the walls. Rake must have double dense hatches, standard cast iron round or wooden 0,6x0,9 meters.
Vygreba in houses that join the sewer network, in the future must be completely cleaned of the contentspits are covered with earth and tamped, the bottoms and walls are dismantled.
Old furniture, bulky waste, remnants of past apartment renovation, bicycles, etc. must assemble in specially created areas or in storage bins and at the request of organizations for the preservation of housing stock transported by truck or trash for bulky waste.
The incineration of any type of waste in waste bins and in the territory of households is prohibited.
On the site of any household urns must be installedthat comply with an approved local authority model. The distance between the urns must be at least 50 meters on the sidewalks of class 3, not more than 100 meters - on other sidewalks, in courtyards, in areas where small waste is likely to appear (near the store entrances and so Further).
Bins should be cleaned of waste throughout the day as needed, but at least once a day, and when morning cleaning, wash as much as possible.
Painting the urn must be renewed at least once a year.
Toilets that are located in non-sewed households, must disinfect and clean the premises daily 20% solution of lime chlorine.
Landscaping of house plots
Landscaping of local areas occurs after cleaning the latter from debris, building materials, laying roads, laying underground facilities and communications, sidewalks, driveways, fencing and sites.
Cutting down or transplanting shrubs and trees, including the sick and dry, without the necessary resolution is prohibited.
The preservation of plantings in the households' area and the necessary care for them is carried out by the housing maintenance organization or, on a contractual basis, by a specialized company.
It is undesirable to plant female species of mulberry, poplar and other trees that litter the air and territory at the time of fruiting.
Landscaping of household plots located in the regions of the Far North and Eastern Siberia should take place, taking into account the presence of permanent permafrost, soil poverty with batteries and humus, possible salinization of the land and structurelessness, according to the recommendations on methods of using and creating plantations of shrubs and trees in different regions of the Far North.
Flower boxes set on balconies and loggias in accordance with the development of the project. Change the design of balconies and loggias and put other brackets for fastening flower boxes possible only by project and permission local governments.
Filling the pools and reservoirs located on the territory of households with water, putting fountains into operation must be held in spring with the arrival of the average daily temperature over the past 5 days more than 17 degrees Celsius.
About the appearance on the plantations of shrubs and trees diseases and pests, the organization for the preservation of housing required to bring to plant protection agencies and organize ways to deal with them according to the recommendations of the masters.
Shutting down the temporary water supply network and draining water from it, sheltering and removing the sculpture, draining water from the pool, you must produce with the onset of morning and night frosts with temperatures less than 2 degrees Celsius
Playgrounds and tracks in the winter must be cleaned of snowslippery areas sprinkled by screening. Clean and loose snow from the tracks and grounds should be spread evenly on the lawns (it is prohibited to throw snow on the edges and near the residential fences).
Snow cover on green streets, which contains chemicals, must be stored on the axial side of the carriageway roads, on the stretch of road that adjoins the curbstone or on the sites free from plantings near the carriageway.
When perekidka snow, which contains chemicals in the area occupied by plantations, you need use places outside the projection of tree trunks, preventing snow from falling directly into the wells trees.
Lay materials in areas that are occupied by plantings, litter the paths, lawns and flower beds with waste, tether wires and ropes to trees, damage green spaces, fix billboards, hang up hammocks, etc. prohibited.
- watering flower gardens, lawns, bushes and trees in dry weather and in summer;
- organize the safety of plantings;
- to conduct explanatory work among residents about the need to take care of plantings;
- new plantations of shrubs and trees, redevelopment with the placement of equipment and changes in the network of tracks carry out only projects that are agreed in the prescribed manner with a clear implementation of agrotechnical conditions Gosstroy;
- to protect trampling down of lawns and warehousing in these places of building materials, garbage, sand, chipping ice, snow, and so on;
- at the equipment of reservoirs on the greened sites keep them clean and do their capital cleaning at least once in 15 years;
- in any cases, transplanting and cutting down of shrubs and trees produced during repair and maintenance should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the regulations and these rules.
On green areas you can not:
- use pure peat as plant soil;
- store any materials;
- use rotary snow devices to transfer snow to trees, use rotary devices to clean trees squares and streets is possible only if special guiding equipment is present on the devices, which prevents the ingress of snow on shrubs;
- arrange dumps of ice, snow and debris, except for pure snow, which spreads after clearing the landscape paths;
- burn the leaves, sweep them into trays during the fall of the leaves, fill the leaves with trunks of shrubs and trees (you need to store them in piles, not allowing sweeping to the streets, export to designated areas for composting or take to landfill);
- throwing snow from the roof to areas that are occupied by plantations, without creating measures to protect shrubs and trees;
- throw off estimates and other pollution on lawns;
- Sprinkle chemicals for recreational and driveways, sidewalks and other surfaces that are prohibited for use;
- violate fire safety and kindle fires;
- play games, lie down, sit and walk on lawns (except meadow ones);
- extract resin, juice, make inscriptions, cuts and other damage from trees;
- to hang clotheslines on the trees for drying clothes, swings, hammocks, hammer nails into trunks, fix electrical wires, billboards, flag garlands, electric garlands of light bulbs, barbed wire and other fences that can harm trees;
- parking and passage of motorcycles, cars and other types of transport (in addition to public transit roads and roads that are intended for the operation of the economy);
- make gaps for laying communication systems without permission in the necessary order.
- New plantings, especially trees on local areas, need to be done on projects in the prescribed regulatory order.
Structural repair and maintenance
Basement walls and foundations
Housing preservation institutions are required to provide:
- working condition of basement walls and foundations of residential buildings;
- working condition of external and intra house drains;
- the required temperature and humidity indicator of technical subfields and basements;
- prevent soaking and dampness of the soil of the foundations, bases and structures of technical subfloors and basements;
- correction of damage to the walls of the basement and foundations as they are determined, preventing their subsequent development.
Technical staff and engineers for housing conservation organizations required to know regulatory requirements and design specifications to the foundations of buildings and structures, the bearing capacity of the soil foundations, the depth of laying and the strength characteristics of the foundations, the depth of freezing and the level of groundwater.
During the appearance of signs of uneven subsidence of the foundation, you need to do a home inspection, decide on the beacons on the cracks, and take measures to determine the causes of deformation and correct them. A survey of the state of the soil, the construction of basement walls and foundations, most often occurs under the contract by specialized companies.
Basements must be clean, dry, have ventilation and lighting.
The temperature should be at least + 5C, humidity - no more than 65 percent.
The size of the products must be approximately 1/400 the size of the floor of the technical underground or basement room. Airways are installed in opposite areas for through ventilation (at least two airways in any section of the building), it is advisable to hang grilles or blinds on airways.
In order to protect structures against the formation of mold and condensate, as well as the removal of rotten smell, you need organize continuous through ventilation, having opened all doors, hatches and airways in not frosty and dry weather.
The surface of the pit walls should be no less than 16 centimeters more than the level of the blind area and the sidewalk. Snow removal from the snow occurs at least once a month. Invalid gaps in the areas of connection of the elements of the pit to the walls of the basement room. To protect against precipitation it is advisable to put over the caps by permission of the architect. To remove water from the pits, the floor must be cement with a slope of at least 0.03 from the walls of the house, and a drainage system must be made in the far corner.
Sidewalks and blind areas
Sidewalks and blind areas must have transverse slopes from the walls of the house not less than 0.04. The surface of the blind area, which borders the roadway, must be raised above it by 16 centimeters. The blind area is defined by the project.
Cracks, cracks and subsidence that appeared in pavements and pavement areas should be covered with materials similar to coating: asphalt, bitumen, mint clay or mastic with sanding and pre-cleaned damaged plots.
Anti-capillary horizontal waterproofing is required to cross the inner plaster and the wall at the level with preparation for the floor of the lower floor, but not less than 16 centimeters more blind area.
Required ensure sufficient and proper thermal insulation internal risers and pipelines. Remove leaks, leaks, blockages, blockages, breakdowns of sanitary devices, hydraulic valves and leaks in sewer systems.
To ensure the durability and reliability of fasteners for sewage pipelines and outlets, for the cleaning of traffic jams and so on.
The building of water-measuring equipment must be protected from rain, thawed and groundwater. It is clean and be equipped with lighting. The entrance of unauthorized people is not allowed in the building of the gauge building
The gaps in the sections of the passage of all water pipes through the foundations and walls are not allowed, bridges for passage through engineering systems must be in working condition.
The entrances of engineering systems to the basements through the walls of the basements and the base must be insulated and sealed.
During the renovation of the building it is necessary to replace underground floors in technical undergrounds on hard floors. The floor surface must be inclined to a special cement pit or ladder for water intake. When detecting water in the pit, it must be pumped out and eliminate the causes of the appearance of water. With the necessary technical and economic feasibility, the organization of intra-house drainage is possible.
At the cleansing of sewer risers in basements to equip concrete trays for water drainage in the pit or sewer.
- contaminate and litter basements;
- flooding of basements and technical undergrounds due to leaks and breakdowns from communication equipment;
- digging trenches, pits and other earthworks in the vicinity of the house (up to 10 meters) without special permission;
- install auxiliary foundations for equipment in basements and technical undergrounds, raise the height of the premises by lowering the floor level without a certified project;
- to use basements and technical undergrounds living for economic and other needs without the necessary permission;
- adding the land around the house above the blind area is 12-16 centimeters.
External doors to the technical underground, basement must be locked with a key. The keys must be in the SLM or in the housing maintenance institutions and in the residents near the apartment located; the doors must be upholstered on both sides with roofing iron, sealed and insulated.
Stone walls (reinforced concrete, brick).
Institutions for the preservation of housing stock are obliged to organize:
- the working position of the walls for the perception of pressure (structural strength);
- the necessary temperature and humidity conditions inside the house;
- moisture protection and heat protection of external walls;
- Correction of damage to the extent of the definition, preventing their subsequent formation.
Technical employees and engineers of the housing maintenance organization are required to know all requirements for structures, strength of materials and design characteristics of the walls of the house, the structural scheme of the walls.
Sediment and deviations of structures from the vertical, as well as their deformation, weathering and destruction of wall material, stratification of masonry rows, loss and hanging of bricks are not allowed.
Methods of repair and causes are determined by a specialized company.
The possible width of the gap opening in the joints is 1 millimeter, in panels 0.5 millimeter.
The basement of the house must be protected from moss overgrowth and moisture. For which the waterproofing layer of the foundation must be less than the height of the blind area.
It is unacceptable to loosen fasteners of protruding elements of the walls: balconies, cornices, brackets, belts, traction, sockets, etc., damage and destruction of the finish layer, in particular, tiles.
In order to prevent the destruction of the paint layers, plaster and facade cladding is necessary prevent wet walls household, technological, atmospheric moisture.
It is forbidden to cover the facade with a vapor-proof layer.
Panel connections must meet the following requirements:
- thermal protection, thanks to the installation of insulated bags;
- air protection, due to sealing gaskets made of hernite, poroizol, tow, vilaterm, resin rope or other materials with an indispensable compression of not less than 35-55%;
- water protection, thanks to sealing mastics with the implementation of the technique of their application, having provided preliminary preparation of the surface of the walls.
Permissible opening of compounds from temperature extremes:
- horizontal 0.4-0.8 mm;
- 3-4 millimeters vertical.
In the compounds of the closed type, waterproofing occurs sealant, air protection - sealing building materials with an indispensable compression of 35-55%, and heat insulation - with the arrangement of "tufts" or heat packs, where the width is not less than 30 cm.
Butt joints that have leaks must be sealed from the outside with quality sealing compounds (elastic mastic and gaskets) by the masters in the shortest possible time (in small quantities during the preparation of houses for the winter season).
Any protruding elements of the facades: ledges, belts, balcony and window ebb, parapets must have iron coatings made of galvanized roofing steel or ceramic plates with embedding edges in the cladding layer or in the slopes and walls. Protection coatings must have a slope of at least 3% and the output from the wall is at least 5 cm.
To prevent stains, peeling, efflorescence, etc. timely painting of facades.
In order to prevent the formation of rust stains, the protective layer must be at least 2 cm, strong fixation of elastic reinforcement must be 4-5 mm, no gaps in the protection layer due to poor adhesion of concrete and reinforcement.
The marks of the drain pipes are mounted 25-45 cm above the position of the sidewalks. Trays, gutters, drain pipes and funnels must be manufactured as a single system of water intake with the necessary slopes. For this, the recumbent folds are bent at an angle, the trays from the lower part are brought under the gutters, the links and the knees of the drainpipes are installed one into the other.
Walls damping or freezing as a result of poor thermal protection, as well as walls with low heat resistance in the southern regions should be insulated.
Water coverage of the lower sections of the walls with ground moisture need to be corrected by restoring horizontal waterproofing, using mastics and rolled materials or block the passage of moisture by the electroosmotic method, or using charging compensation according to the project of a residential house.
After removing the sources of moisture, the walls must be dried to the required moisture using intensive natural ventilation with one-time additional heating using portable devices heating. Walls that condense or freeze as a result of their high thermal conductivity should be insulated.
Institutions for the preservation of the housing stock in identifying cracks that caused damage to the blocks and panels, brick walls, deviations of walls from the axis, their subsidence and buckling in certain places, as well as in the areas of termination slabs, required to conduct periodic monitoring using beacons or otherwise. If it becomes clear that the deformations are getting bigger, then it is necessary to create urgent measures to organize the safety of residents and prevent the subsequent formation of deformations. Stabilizing slots need to be corrected.
Curtain rods and parapets are required to have durable fasteners to the elements of the house and opening with a slope in part of the internal drainage and at least 4 percent outside the wall. Take-away opening or eaves, and must be at least 7 cm, iron opening must be connected lying double fold, the joints of the coating of the plates must be sealed with mastic or polymer cement solution. It is not allowed to get under the cover of moisture.
To prevent the occurrence of mold spots, freezing of walls, the formation of condensate, mucus on the internal surfaces of external fencing systems, the moisture content of the materials must have:
- slag - 5-7%;
- haydite - 4%;
- aerated - 11%;
- foam concrete - 11%.
- brick - 5%;
- wood - 11%;
- expanded clay - 11%;
- panel reinforced concrete - 7%;
- insulation on the walls - 9%.
In brick structures should be provided:
- thickness in view of the project;
- correct location of waterproofing walls;
- dense finishing of walls from the outside and performance of angular fastenings with deviation from design is inadmissible.
The deformations that caused a decrease in stability and durability, heat engineering and water-resistant characteristics of external obstruction, noise insulation and other properties that cannot be corrected in the current repair should be corrected in the course of reconstruction or major repairs, taking into account the design documentation.
The organization for the preservation of the housing stock with the assistance of special companies is obliged to monitor the status of embedded metal parts.
Removing the effects of corrosion deformation of embedded valves and parts must be made in the overhaul according to the project.
If you find a buckling, roll, fungal damage, decay, subsidence, wood-destroying insects, you must call the service company.
Sagging of backfill in frame walls of more than 50 mm, destruction of plating and plaster, damage to waterproofing, leakage, increased air permeability, moistening of heat insulation and wood with ground and condensation moisture, supercooling must be corrected as they are determined, preventing them subsequent education.
Increased air permeability of the walls must be corrected by sealing joints with caulking gaps between the rims, installing splatters, embedding cracks and gaps and other methods.
The lower rims of wooden abutments and plinths (installation of plinths, drain boards, corbel, window openings, etc.) must be fitted tightly to avoid over-wetting.
Local destruction of plaster, lining, cracks in plaster, paint and texture layers, chipping solution from the joints of the lining, small block and brickwork, wear or damage to the iron coating on the protruding elements of the walls, the destruction of sealing seals compounds of prefabricated houses, the destruction of parapets, the destruction of drainpipes, efflorescence and drips, rust and wet spots, general pollution surfaces and so on must be corrected as determined, preventing their subsequent appearance.
Damage and destruction of the finishing layer, weakening fasteners of architectural elements projecting from the wall surface (balconies, cornices, brackets, belts, rods, sockets and so on) must be corrected in the overhaul according to project.
With the formation on the facades of the house of destruction and detachment of the facing layers it is necessary:
- deformed places on the facade of the restoration with the replacement of all damaged architectural elements or their restoration;
- knock off the stucco from the facade of the wall immediately after identifying the detachment;
- architectural elements and facing tiles that have lost contact with the wall, immediately removed.
Facades of unplastered surfaces with weathered laying, most often required to tile or plaster with a complex or cement mortar after pre-cleaning the wall of the material that has lost its strength.
The deformations of the surface of the basement should be plastered with cement mortar with the addition of a water-repellent additive substance or lined.
Plinths with a small thickness of lightweight concrete panels with a deformed textured layer, as well as brick plinths with deformed masonry and plaster are most often necessary to veneer with ceramic and concrete plates or tiles made of natural stone, as well as other frost-resistant and moisture-resistant materials in coordination with the documentation project.
Plaster with shrinkage small cracks or textured layers of panels or blocks should be protected from deformation by grouting with a liquid polymer cement solution followed by painting.
Stabilized large gaps need to be sealed with polymer cement mortar or a material similar to wall surfaces.
Metallic inclusions that exist in the walls of the facades of prefabricated buildings must be removed and the rusting surfaces cleaned and painted. The recesses, chips, shells that appeared it is necessary to coat it flush with the surface of the structures polymer composition.
Separate places of blocks and panels made of lightweight concrete, which do not have an external textured layer, should be rubbed with a solution of cement.
Places wall panels with visible reinforcement must be plastered with cement mortar. Separate parts of the reinforcement, which protrude from the wall plane, need to be deepened into the structure, before it is cut down concrete. Finishing must be restored in accordance with the rules established by the project.
Facades of the house need to be washed and cleaned in terms established with regard to the material, operating conditions and condition of the surfaces of the house (destruction of the coating, presence of chips, degree of contamination).
To clean the surfaces of facings and plasters made of soft stone, as well as architectural elements with a sandblasting method is prohibited.
The surfaces of stone walls, walls plastered with cement mortar and walls, which are lined with ceramic tiles, may be cleaned only with a sandblaster equipment.
Walls lined with ceramic tiles, after cleaning, must be treated with hydrophobic or other special substances.
To clean the surface of the walls, lined with glazed tile, it is necessary to use only special substances.
Facade cleaning works are most often carried out by specialized companies.
The walls of the plastered wooden houses (prefabricated, slab and chopped) with and without sheathing, required at a specified time painted with vapor-permeable paints or solutions to enhance protection from rotting and fungus and fire safety.
Painting the walls of the house should be carried out taking into account the color passport, which is issued in the prescribed manner, where instructions on the use of the material, finishes and colors of architectural elements and directly facade. The painted surface of the walls must be smooth, without damaged areas, stains and blots.
Painting of facades should be done after the repair of parapets, walls, protruding architectural moldings and elements, chimneys, roofs, entrance devices (door canopies, porches), sandriks, linear coverings of eaves, drainpipes and window sills. Weakly retaining old paint must be removed.
Belt and window coverings must be made of ceramic tiles or galvanized steel with embedment of the edges in the finishing layer.
Exterior wall drainage structures required to have required slopes from walls and organize from them the free withdrawal of waters.
Metal parts fasteners (drainage pipe holders, flag holders, fire escape brackets, and so on) must be installed with a slope from the walls. On elements that have a slope to the wall, it is necessary to close the adjacent cuffs of zinc steel at a distance of 6-11 cm from the wall. All metal elements attached to the wall should be periodically protected from corrosion and painted.
Painting iron flag holders, ladders, elements of fasteners for electrical network stretch marks, grilles of ventilation panel openings and roof fences must be done with oil paints taking into account the color passport of the building every 7-8 years, taking into account the operating conditions of the house.
Peaks, balconies, bay windows and loggias
Employees of organizations for the preservation of the housing stock are required to periodically check the correctness of operation loggias, bay windows and balconies, to prevent the installation of heavy and bulky objects in them, their pollution and cluttering up It is necessary to periodically explain the rules for the maintenance of loggias, bay windows, balconies and niches to owners, tenants and tenants of residential premises and proxies.
When identifying signs of damage to the supporting panels of loggias, balconies, niches, bay windows and visors, employees of organizations for the preservation of housing stock obliged to take measures to protect the subsequent development of deformations and human security organizations.
To prevent deformation of the edges of the loggias and the balcony slab or the gaps between the walls and the balcony slab due to precipitation, The iron drain must be mounted in the groove of the box, the width of which must be at least 1.6 mm of the plate thickness and must be laid under the layer waterproofing.
The slope of the slab of a loggia or balcony must be at least 3% of the walls of the house with the organization of the discharge of water leached a stove or an iron apron with a dripstick with a yield of at least 4-6 cm, in the butt of the drain must be embedded in the body panels.
In case of emergency position of bay windows, loggias and balconies you need to close and seal the outputs on them, organize security measures and take measures to repair them. Repair work must be carried out according to the project document.
Improper performance or lack of mates of the waterproofing layer and plums with structures, loosening fasteners and damage to loggia and balcony barriers, smudges on the upper surface of slabs balcony must be corrected as determined, preventing their subsequent development.
Chipping bearing platforms under consoles, destruction of load-bearing plates and beams, reverse tilt (to the house) of the floor, destruction and detachment of loggias and balconies need to be corrected in the overhaul according to the project document.
In plastered and encased metal beams, the strength of the cement-metal bond must be checked. Peel off solution must be removed. The protective layer must be restored.
Black steel plums, metal barriers, flower boxes are required to be periodically painted with weather-resistant paints. At the same time, the color must correspond to the one described in the house’s color passport.
The fixture, shape and location of the flower boxes must comply with the architectural design of the house and the adopted project.
Flower boxes must be placed on pallets, with a distance of at least 5 cm from the wall. If the project does not imply special fastenings outside, then the boxes should be placed on the inside of the barriers of balconies and balconies.
In order to prevent freezing and leaks in the areas of the wall joints and window openings along the perimeter of the boxes must be sealed and insulated (foam rubber, tow, felt, etc.) with compression of 35-55%.
To improve the temperature and humidity conditions and fuel economy of rooms, balcony and window openings are required be supplied with gaskets for seals, preferably made of foam rubber or polyurethane foam, to be replaced at least 6 times years old.
In order to prevent precipitation from entering through the windows in the lower beam of the box, there should be two slots for removing water of 1 cm in size at a distance of 5-10 cm from the edge. Slots must be tilted out and cleaned. Painting windows done every five years.
Glasses are mounted on a double layer of window putty and fixed with beadings.
Fastening of door and window frames is made with screws and ruffs in antiseptic cork made of wood.
Warming of the balcony panels is carried out by installation mineral felt or antiseptic orgalit any other similar material between the inner and outer canvases.
- Unauthorized installation of bay windows, canopies, loggias, balconies and building up the inter-balcony square.
- Operation of loggias, bay windows and balconies for other purposes, installation of heavy and bulky objects on them, their pollution and cluttering.
- In the walls of large-block and large-panel houses, punch and widen openings, as well as fasten trolleybus, tram and other delays to panels of external walls.
Housing preservation institutions are required to provide:
- working condition of floors;
- restoration of heat engineering (above basements, garret floors), waterproofing (floors in bathrooms), acoustic characteristics of floors, as well as heat and waterproofing of the joints of external walls, sanitary structures and other elements;
- heat resistance, stability, absence of cracks and vibrations, deflections;
- correction of overlap deformations, preventing their subsequent development;
- sound insulation.
Local cracks and peeling of plaster must be corrected by the degree of their identification, preventing their subsequent education.
In the formation of excess (more than 1/400 of the surface) deflections of supporting structures, high sound conductivity, fluctuation, freezing, cracks in the central part across the span of the slab of more than 0.4 mm in size, damage to wood-destroying insects and woody fungi, humidification and hypothermia attic floors, you must call the wizard and fix for overhaul according to project document.
Correction of over-standard bending of floors, their strengthening, elimination of cracks, loss of individual bricks (shallow depth of the element support) or displacement of bearing floors from girders or walls in brick arches and other deformations that reduce the stability and bearing capacity of the ceiling, must be made according to the design documentation. In identifying the above deformations of floors urgent action needed on the prevention of the subsequent formation of deformations and the organization of safety of tenants.
Supercooling ceilings must be insulated in the following way:
- on the attic space along the outer walls on a strip measuring 0.5-1.1 meters must be an additional layer of insulation or bevel from the material of thermal insulation at an angle of 45 degrees;
- thermal insulation of supercooled areas of overlap with a warm attic room (under the ventilation mines, and so on) must be made according to the calculation; attic floor: bring the insulation layer to calculated;
- overlap over the underground and driveways to insulate in the installation of external doors in the entrance and produhov basement walls, and to increase the thickness of the insulation by 14-22% according to the design documentation;
- interfloor overlappings: to strengthen the insulation in the areas of their connection to external walls (after dismantling the floor); seal the seams of the panel walls and install bevels from heat insulation material with a width of 20-35cm, insulation along the ends of the girders and panels, plaster the inner walls of the brick surfaces within the underground space.
Ceilings over laundries, built-in boilers, shops, coal storages and industrial premises should be tight. High humidity, specific odors and gas contamination in the rooms above the above listed rooms are unacceptable.
Attic overlaps with a thermal insulating layer of expanded clay gravel, slag and other material must have running wooden bridges, and on the layer of insulation - sand-lime screed. In high-rise buildings, it is necessary to thoroughly seal the joint joints between the panels in the mating areas with adjacent walls during repairs.
Leaks near hot water supply systems and heating that pass through the ceiling must be sealed, with the preliminary installation of the liner, asbestos fiber or cord.
Housing preservation institutions are required to provide:
- periodic determination of the technical condition of floors in residential buildings;
- correction of damage to sexes according to the degree of determination, preventing their subsequent formation;
- keeping floors clean by cleaning at specified intervals;
- repair of protective and finishing coatings;
- prevention of prolonged action of water on the floor construction.
Clogging and the absence of cracks behind baseboards or ventilation grilles, violation of the paint layer of wooden floors, loss and mobility of individual rivets must be corrected as they are determined.
Vulnerability, local subsidence, warping and desiccation of parquet staves and boards, abrasion, lack of gratings ventilation, creaking, peeling of the coating from the base, rotting must be corrected during repair according to the design to the document.
Floors with increased deflections and shakiness need to be opened, to determine the state of the elastic pads of wood and supporting structures and restore.
Damaged parquet rivets must be replaced with new ones from the same material and size, and detached from the base attached.
To remove parquet floor squeak, it is necessary to make a parquet flooring with laying it over a layer of construction felts or cardboard with replacement of damaged rivets.
Parquet floors must be treated with varnishes or rubbed with mastic for floors. Rubbing (after cleaning with special substances) should be carried out at least once every 2 months, lacquer coating, usually every 4-8 years with a scrubbing surface. Washing parquet is prohibited.
Floors with parquet rivets, fixed to the base with bitumen mastic, must be rubbed with water-based mastic only.
Wooden floors must be painted with oil enamel or paint at least once every 4 years with pretreatment with a putty.
Underfloor surface of plank floors on logs with pavement slabs must be ventilated through a hole ventilation, which are organized in the floor in 2 opposite corners of the room or in the baseboards in the form of slots, taking into account 6 sq. cm. on apt. m. room size. The grilles above the holes must be laid on linings above the main floor by 10 millimeters.
With a significant drying out of the plank flooring, it is necessary to break them and rally with further painting.
Significantly damaged or worn boards must be replaced with new ones, antitheaded with 3 the parties; the shape and size of the replaced elements (baseboards, bars) must be matched earlier established.
After the repair is completed, the floor is painted 2 times with pre-putty and primer surfaces.
Linoleum floors, relien and PVC tiles it is necessary to wipe it daily with cold or warm water and at least several times a month to handle brushes. It is forbidden to wash such floors with warm water and diluted soda, sand or pumice stone.
Seamless mastic floors during the month after laying allowed to wipe only with a damp cloth, and at the end of this time, wipe and rub like a linoleum floor.
Reduction of static electrification of coatings made of synthetic materials, tiles and PVC linoleum must be achieved increasing the humidity of the air in the room up to 52-57%, rubbing floors with special wax or mastic, surface treatment with antistatic substances.
The base of the linoleum floor, when replacing worn out, must be leveled and repaired. For a thin coating, the base must be made of cellular concrete, solid semi-rigid fibreboard and other materials that have a low coefficient of thermal absorption.
Deformed areas of linoleum coating need to be replaced or repaired, choosing material by pattern and color. Delaminated coatings of synthetic tiles and linoleum coatings must be thoroughly dried and glued onto masticby pre-stripping the base of the floor.
Tiled slabs, peeled off from the base of concrete, must be cleaned before use and moistened with water. Fasteners tiles must be carried out on concrete solution, as well as using epoxy, colloidal cement or other glue, taking into account ensuring the installation of tile laying in a single plane with existing. During repair, tiles must be matched to the pattern and color.
The putty of deformed areas in asphalt, mosaic and cement floors must be made with layers of the same thickness and of the same materials as the previously installed floors. The surface of the subfloor should be free from dust, notched, durable, and also soaked with water.
On the next day, the repaired areas of cement floors must be ironed with concrete.
The floors of cement, mosaic and ceramic tiles should be washed with warm water at least every 7 days.
Housing preservation institutions are required to provide:
- restoration of moisture-proof (in kitchens and bathrooms), fire retardant and noise insulation properties;
- correction of damage to partitions according to the degree of determination, preventing their subsequent formation;
- working condition of partitions.
The fragility of partitions should be reduced by installing and restoring additional fasteners to adjacent walls.
If small partitions have a large buckling or slope, and cracks have formed in the horizontal joints, they should be replaced with new ones or shifted.
Leaks around the perimeter of the partitions in the areas of their interfacing with adjacent walls, as well as through gaps in the partitions need to be cleared and well seal with sealing substances or caulk with tow soaked in gypsum solution, and then sealed with gypsum-lime on both sides a mixture.
When re-formation of cracks in the joints of the partitions with the walls or between themselves, you need to plaster the corners of the partitions on a metal plaster grid.
The slots around the perimeter of the heating panel and the space between the heating pipeline and the liner need caulk with asbestos cord, cover with cement-lime mortar with the addition of 11-14% asbestos crumbs.
The lagged plaster must be knocked down, the surface of the partitions cleaned and again plastered with the same solution.
The lining that has lost its grip to the bulkhead must be removed and re-executed.
During restoration of facing must use tile, the same in color and shape.
Places with deformed cladding of dry gypsum plaster sheets should be replaced with subsequent restoration of the finish. Small holes can be covered with a plaster mortar.
Cavity, which were formed in the frame partitions, you need to lay mortar plates or fill up with effective noise insulation materials.
Fasteners for wall-mounted equipment for asbestos-cement partitions of technical and sanitary cabins, unless special fixings are installed for this, are prohibited.
Rules of technical operation
Housing preservation institutions are required to provide:
- protection against dampening communications equipment or structures against roof leakage;
- working condition of the drainage system and structures of the attic of the roof;
- providing height according to the design of ventilation devices;
- temperature, humidity and air exchange, which prevents the formation of condensate and overcooling of coatings and attic floors;
- compliance with regulatory rules and the adequacy of thermal insulation of all risers and pipelines; strengthening the insulation must be performed with effective insulation materials;
- cleanliness and illumination of the attic;
- organization of maintenance and technical inspections within a specified time frame;
- the absence of icing and clogging of the funnels, serviceability in the areas of contact of the intake funnels with the roof, moistening of the riser insulation with condensate and leakage of the drain of the drainpipe.
It is necessary to correct, preventing subsequent formation, deformations in the bearing roofing structures:
- reinforced concrete (corrosion of reinforcement, deformation of the protective concrete layer, hollows in slabs, cracks and deflections, etc.);
- wooden (destruction of waterproofing mauerlatov, deformation of attachment between elements, deflection and rotting crates, rafter legs and other elements);
- roof of sheets of tile, asbestos cement tiles and other piece materials (loosening fasteners elements of the roof to the crate, insufficient overlap between themselves and the displacement and damage of individual elements);
- a roof made of sheet steel (fistulas and holes, weakening of folds and ridges, destruction of the protective or painting layer, corrosion);
- mastic (destruction of the mastic layer, detachment);
- a roof made of rolled materials (holes and tears, detachment from the base, delamination between panels and in the seams, local subsidence, cracking of the protective and coating layers, swelling).
During operation of load-bearing wooden structures, clamps, bolts and other should be tightened. metal fasteners in the nodal parts and, if necessary, change the rotting and damaged individual mounts. Conduct periodic treatment against fungi at least every 12 years during overhaul. In case of emergency condition of the roof, measures should be taken to organize the safety of the residents
Potholes with a partial yield of reinforcement and deformed reinforced concrete protective layers of the supporting elements of the roof need to be repaired, and the cracks must be smeared with concrete. If the deformation led to the loss of the bearing capacity of structural elements, they must be replaced or reinforced.
Repair, cleaning and inspection of steel roofs should be carried out only in rubber or felt shoes. Repair of the roof with asbestos-cement materials must be carried out with mobile stepladders. And you need to perform all safety measures.
Painting metal fasteners of the roof with protective anti-corrosion compounds and paints is carried out as corrosion forms, avoiding rust stains. Zinc steel roofs painted after rust stains and at least once in 6 years. Painting of individual sections of the roof is held every year. Arrangement of a protective layer, coating of soft roofs with mastic, sprinkling with coarse sand or putty seams in a soft roof are carried out as the roof deteriorates or ages.
On roofs made of mastic or rolled materials it is necessary to equip protective coatings taking into account the established requirements and rules.
Soft roofs must be treated with protective mastic at least once every 5 years or with paint and varnish with aluminum chips.
Parts and steel connections installed in the attic rooms and on the roof are to be treated with anti-corrosion substances every 6 years.
Equipment and devices, roof supporting structures, fences, roof drainage elements and eaves, Anchors, sleeves, lightning protection devices must be provided in technical position.
Compaction of deformed standing and recumbent seam of the roof of sheet steel must be carried out with a grease sealant or red lead seal, the sealing of small fistulas and openings (up to 5 millimeters) - burlap or fiberglass, sealant with glass mesh reinforcement or merik putty, as well as installing patches from sheet metal.
Defects that cause roof leaks must be corrected within the deadlines indicated in Appendix 2.
Replaceable parts or damaged parts of the roof of piece materials must be laid on a layer of roll material (roofing material, roofing, etc.) on a continuous crate.
In the roofs of piece materials, with a strong blowing of snow into the attic room, the connection between the elements of the roof covering must be sealed with plastic material or sealed with mastic.
Roof coverings in ventilation units connected to the walls and other structures protruding above the roof, must be protected with a zinc steel apron (and the apron must be 16 cm above the roof, and sealed in the fines) and get into the penalties, and in interface with television antennas and radio transmission racks - install additional metal sleeve
Tesovy draining and shingle roofs must be repaired by replacing rotten elements. Moreover, it is necessary to provide measures that protect the roof from rotting.
The device of structural changes to the roof is possible only if there is a technical condition or design decision as agreed upon, taking into account the project document.
Work on the replacement of the roof must be organized so as to prevent dampening of the floors of the house with atmospheric moisture. It is allowed to start repairing the roof with a disclosure only if all required workpieces, building materials and the corresponding weather forecast are available on the sites.
On the roofs of houses with a height of more than 3 floors, having no barriers, it is allowed to firmly install in building elements metal hinges for fasteners to them safety harnesses of workers when repairing overhang the roofs.
During overhaul of pitched roofs, it is necessary to provide fasteners for fastening safety ropes.
After completion of the repair of the parapets, chimneys, roof, all residues of debris and building materials must be removed and the roof cleaned.
The supporting beams of the roof, where the cradles or other suspended structures are attached, should be checked for reliability and durability. For fixing, you can use air ducts or special ventilation holes.
Installation of TV and radio antennas by owners, tenants, tenants of residential premises, implementation of design changes in roofing elements, sealing special air vents and ventilation holes in dormer windows and roofs without certified projects prohibited.
Sweeping debris, leaves and needles into the funnels and gutters of internal and external drains is prohibited.
It is forbidden to be on the roof to people who are not related to home repair and maintenance.
Cleaning the roof of dirt and debris is carried out twice annually: in the autumn and spring.
Removal of icicles and ice - as needed.
Soft roofs do not clear snow cover, except for:
- snow canopies on all types of roofs, ice and snow canopies from canopies and balconies;
- overhangs and gutters on pitched roll roofs with external drain.
Roof with external drainage need to be periodically cleaned of snow, since the accumulation of snow with a layer of more than 35 cm is unacceptable, and during thaws it is necessary to throw off the snow with a smaller thickness.
Snow cleaning from reinforced concrete sloping roofs with internal water flow should be carried out only in case of leaks in certain zones.
Cleaning the funnels and drainage prior to discharge from the funnel side should be carried out with metal brushes with a wire diameter equal to the cross section of the riser pipe. Gutters should be cleaned with brushes and scrapers, then rinsed.
It is required to provide roof ventilation:
- roofs with warm attic space - with a single shaft ventilation per section;
- ventilated and besherdachnyh - with the help of airs;
- attic - with the help of dormer windows and eaves and ridge products, the area of which should be equal to 1/500 of the size of the attic floor. Products are equipped with a metal grid, and louvered grilles are installed on the dormer windows. Closing the ventilation device is prohibited.
During roof maintenance it is necessary to ensure:
- operability in the areas of the roof mate and water intake funnels, the lack of moisture of the condensate thermal insulation of the risers, leakage of the joints of the riser and icing and clogging of the funnels
- operability of the drainage system;
- internal gutters that pass in the attic room must be insulated;
- drain pipes must be laid vertically;
- serviceability and sufficiency of thermal insulation of all water pipes, valves and risers;
- water intake funnels must be periodically cleaned of snow and debris, and also washed; water intake funnels must be equipped with protective grids located on the pressure ring and caps with a drain hole.
Strengthening the thermal insulation of the risers and water pipes of the main heating systems and hot water supply must be made with an effective thermal insulation material.
It is necessary to ensure the height of ventilation devices specified by the project. For flat roofs, the height of the ventilation shafts must be 0.8 meters above the roof, parapet or other protruding parts of the house, the height of the drain pipe must be higher than the edge of the ventilation shaft 0.16 meters.
Prohibited blocking of the ends of the beams with waterproofing and antiseptics.
Moisturizing of structures from leakage of communication equipment or the roof is not allowed.
The necessary presence of a layer of waterproofing between the masonry and wood.
For monolithic or precast concrete roofing must be provided the strength of the protection layer, the absence of deflection, corrosion of reinforcement, potholes, cracks in the supporting structures of the roof.
Ruffled and combined roofs
Moisture insulation is unacceptable. Removal of dampness in a bescherdny roof should be carried out by laying along the outer wall. additional thermal insulation on a destroyed site or by means of its thermal insulation with internal parties. When moistening the condensate of a bescherdny non-ventilated roof, it is necessary to reconstruct the roof with the arrangement of the vapor barrier in it, the air ducts and the laying of additional thermal insulation material.
Replacing the insulation that has lost its characteristics as a result of leaks is carried out in the overhaul of the developed design documentation.
Repair and maintenance of communication equipment
Heat supply systems (heat points, heat networks, boiler rooms, hot water supply and heating systems) for residential buildings must be in technical condition all the time and be operated in accordance with the regulatory documents on ventilation and heat supply, certified in the prescribed manner by the resolution.
Housing preservation institutions are required to:
- time to carry out reconstruction, repair and adjustment of communication equipment and systems;
- widely introduce innovative operating experience and technical progressive solutions.
- to conduct with the population and working personnel necessary explanatory events;
- introduce the scheduling of systems and means of automated regulation;
- to monitor and record the consumption of energy and fuel resources, as well as water, by equipping the heating units of the houses with modern measuring and control devices and metering devices (water meters and heat meters), installation of apartment gas meters and water meters and organize their operation and safety
Adjustment of systems, overhaul and reconstruction must be carried out by specialized commissioning and installation companies.
For economical and reliable operation of heating systems timely implementation of preventive measures and maintenance:
- external heat pipelines with the required performance and estimated coolant flow with minimal losses;
- thermal insulation of hot water pipes located in basements, underground canals, sanitary and technical cabins, attics.
- heat generators with the design of regime maps of boiler work, providing them with high-quality fuel required for these types of boilers, supplying the required quality and the amount of coolant for the hot supply of water for ventilation and heating of residential buildings, taking into account the required schedule of water consumption in the heating network and regulation temperatures;
- heating systems with coolant supply of the required parameters to all heating devices at home according to the schedule for adjusting the temperature of the water in the heating system (Appendix No. 11);
- individual and trunk heating stations with automated heat consumption control systems;
- a ventilation system that provides normal air exchange in the rooms, with low heat consumption for heating air supply air in systems with air heating and mechanical ventilation and infiltrating through the doors and window;
- hot water supply systems, with water supply of the required temperature and pressure to any water points.
The occurrence of accidents in the district heating networks must be removed immediately.
A month before the end of the current heating season, the institutions that serve the housing stock must coordinate and work out with the heat supply company and assure local governments schedule schedules for the repair and prevention of heating networks, heat consumption systems and heat points with a warning to the tenant 2 days before shutdown.
Repair of heat consumption systems, heat points and networks should be carried out simultaneously in the summer period. The recommended repair time associated with disconnecting hot water is two weeks.
Testing for density and strength of equipment of ventilation systems, heating, central air conditioning and hot water supply must be held every year after the end of the heating period to identify defects and before the start of the heating season after the completion of repairs.
Central heating system
The operation of the central heating system must provide:
- maintaining the temperature of the water returned and entering the heating system, taking into account the schedule for regulating the water in the heating system (Appendix No. 11);
- adjustment of the heating system, removal of unnecessary heating devices and installation of additional ones in certain areas that are lagging behind in temperature conditions;
- preservation of optimum (not less admissible) temperature in heated premises;
- preservation of the required pressure (not more than permissible for heating devices) in the return and supply system of the pipeline;
- uniform heating of all heating devices;
- immediate correction of all visible water leaks;
- displacement coefficient at the elevator unit of the water system is not less than the calculated one;
- replacement or repair of broken cranes on heating appliances.
Maximum operating pressure for heating systems with cast-iron appliances should be taken 0.6 MPa, with steel - 1.0 MPa.
The temperature in the premises of houses in the winter period should be no lower than the standards established by the standards. In the presence of an automated adjustment of heat consumption, to save energy, the temperature in the rooms at night may reduce several degrees.
Plumbers and locksmiths are required to monitor the operating state of the heating system, promptly remove breakdowns and causes that cause excessive energy consumption.
It is prohibited to increase the number and surface of heating appliances without permission of the departments for the preservation of the housing stock.
Thus, when managing a residential house as a management organization, it is she is responsible to owners, tenants and tenants of premises in a multi-storey building for all types of services and organization of work related to proper maintenance of the property in this house, the quality of which is obliged to comply with the resolution of the technical rules established Government of the Russian Federation on the maintenance of property in a multi-storey building, for the provision of public services, taking into account the level of improvement of this residential houses.