You can do an electrician in your apartment or house with your own hands, but this is quite risky. Of course, any work can be learned. But the electrician is an area that requires excellent knowledge of theory and good practice. Illiterate wiring experiments can be dangerous. If you are going to conduct electricity yourself, you need to know the order and the nuances of the work.
- 1 How to conduct wiring in the house?
- 2 Posting in the apartment
- 3 Wiring in a private house
- 4 RCD installation
How to conduct wiring in the house?
Need to start from a detailed plan. According to the wiring diagram in private house:
- you can calculate how many and what cables are needed, the size, the number of switches, sockets and distribution boxes;
- determine the location of power and wiring parts;
- make in the future maintenance and repair of hidden wiring.
The type of power supply depends on the chosen type of power supply.
The basic three-phase scheme and the plan-scheme of a private house or apartment, made to scale, with distribution groups is needed for high-quality installation of electricians in the future.
Often in the house or in the apartment there is an internal and introductory electrical panel. From the inner shield lead cables to the premises.
Main groupsthat consumers break into:
- appliances with high power;
- lighting and sockets for bath and toilet;
- lighting and kitchen sockets;
- buildings for household purposes.
It is not recommended to connect all the electricity to one group of points, as there will be an excessively large load.
When drawing up a three-phase scheme, it is necessary to provide the system with protection devices - RCDs, which are installed on each distribution group.
The electrical wiring is affected by the intended placement of household appliances and their power. They determine the number, placement of sockets and the desired cable size.
The three-phase wiring diagram in the house and in the apartment does not differ much, only by the input of electrical energy: it enters the apartment by cable from the panel on the floor, and into the house by overhead line. The wiring plan in the garage implies the input of electricity from a central power line or from a house next to it by an underground or air method.
Posting in the apartment
An apartment is, as a rule, brick or concrete walls, finished with gypsum plasterboard or covered with plaster.
Wiring in the apartment can be combined or hidden.
There may be several options: wiring can be mounted to the plaster, and then covered with it, installation can be done by crushing the plaster, carried out in the cavities of the gypsum board. To install the wiring using a pipe, corrugated PVC or metal flexible hose, open wiring is often laid in the cable channels.
In order to carry out high quality wiring in the apartment there are certain tips and rules.
To ensure safety, in the switchboard set machines, which protect the equipment from burnout and short circuit, and devices for shutdown, which in case of voltage drops disconnect the consumer. For the toilet we recommend your safety device due to high humidity.
There are some peculiarities in the installation of electrical wiring in the bathroom: it should not be junction boxes, and place the switch is unacceptable. You can install the outlet. For rooms with high humidity, you need to select devices protected from moisture with grounding.
Marking for electrical conduct on strictly vertical and horizontal lines. Electric power lines should not interbreed with each other. The track should always be led parallel to any wall. If wiring is carried out under the floor, the cable must be placed at a certain distance from the wall.
Today, as a rule, in new homes use copper wires, they are more durable than aluminum, which remained in many old apartments.
The cable size must be at least two square millimeters, it is always chosen more than the calculated, which is determined depending on the expected load on the network. The possible current density for copper wire should not exceed eight amps per square millimeter. For different distribution groups need a wire with different size.
The cable that runs in the cavities, you need to protect the sleeves, pipes or corrugations.
Broaching electrical wiring with PVC hoses, metal pipes and corrugations makes it possible to replace an electrician without disturbing the finish.
All cable spikes should be only in distribution boxes and they need access to be provided so that if necessary something can be corrected. Connect the wires can be soldered or terminals.
Wires and installation boxes are fixed under switches and sockets with plaster or plaster.
Throughout the apartment should be sockets of at least one to six square meters. In rarely used rooms, for example, in the corridor, 1–2 sockets will suffice, it is good to put several groups of three or four sockets in the kitchen (this depends on the number and placement of household appliances).
It is best to use switches and sockets with ceramic internals and copper contacts.
The placement of switches and sockets is not regulated, but it is more convenient to place sockets at a height of at least thirty centimeters from the floor. Switches are placed at a height convenient for an outstretched hand.
Wiring in a private house
Electrical wiring in a country house is performed on the same principles as in a city apartment. However, the wiring in wooden house has its own characteristics. Due to the fact that the base of the log house is combustible, it is necessary to carry out electrical wiring in a private house in compliance with safety measures.
Installation of electrical wiring in a private house should be produced:
- From non-burning (self-extinguishing) cables and wires with insulation, for example, VVGng;
- hidden wiring - on the electrical sewage system that does not sustain combustion, that is, from metal: metal (usually copper) pipes, steel boxes, with permanent grounding. If plastic corrugations and ducts are used, they need to be surrounded with a layer of non-combustible material — in fact, they should be embedded in the plaster;
- with the use of metal assemblies: installation and distribution boxes;
- ensuring that the adhesions are tight, so that during a short circuit, the electric arc does not extend beyond the pipe and into a tree;
- the material from which the floors are made and the walls must be dry.
Of course, the rules are quite strict and installation of wiring, for example, in the country, looks unreasonably time consuming and costly. However, above all safety.
Mounting a differential relay or protective devices off another step in achieving the security of the house of wood.
Electric network layout can be done antique: open wiring is installed on insulators made of porcelain, there is a gap between the wire and the tree - the wires do not touch the walls and ceilings. This is perhaps the only relatively safe and standards-compliant method of laying open wiring in combustible structures.
The electrification of a private house should be carried out immediately, not in parts, and carried out before the installation of ceilings, floors and doors.
Electrification work begins from the cable to the house from the central power line or outdoor switchboard, in accordance with the scheme perform wiring the rooms, assemble the inner panel for distribution, prepare the holes for the sockets and switches. After finishing the finishing work install all the devices.
Watch the video below: do it yourself in the country house.
Wherever the wires are laid, the color of the cables is important. According to clause 2.1.31 of the electrical installation rules, electrical wiring should enable quick Detection of conductors by color:
- blue - indicates the zero working or middle conductor of the electrical network;
- green-yellow color - indicates the zero protective or protective conductor;
- green-yellow color along the entire length with blue markings on the edges of the line, which are applied during installation - indicates the connected zero working and zero protective conductor;
- black, brown, red, purple, gray, pink, white, orange, turquoise color - designates the phase conductor.
In the video you can see the separation of colors.
To lay the wiring in the house or apartment master with experience quite easily. But for those who do not understand electrics, you need to take the help of a specialist. Of course, you have to spend money, but this way you can avoid mistakes that can lead to fire.