To ensure the growth and development of plants need special lamps. They provide good growth for plants not only in artificial conditions, but also in normal ones. In order for plants to be healthy and develop in any period of the year - in winter and summer, it is necessary to purchase lamps for plants. They provide a sufficient amount of light needed for natural and high-quality photosynthesis, in which plants synthesize carbohydrates involved in the growth process and their development.
How to choose the right lamp for plants and what kind of lighting plants need in the winter, consider below.
- 1 What kind of lighting do plants need?
2 Types of lamps and their characteristics
- 2.1 Incandescent lamps
- 2.2 Fluorescent lamps
- 2.3 Energy-saving lamps
- 2.4 Discharge lamps
- 2.5 Aquarium lamps
- 2.6 LED lamps
- 3 Lighting duration
- 4 How to choose the right type of lamp?
What kind of lighting do plants need?
In winter, in early spring or in late autumn, when plants do not have the ability to receive the right amount of sunlight, their shortage can be compensated with additional lighting. To ensure good growth and development of greenery throughout the year, you need
Plants need constant light, not from time to time. When the lighting is switched on periodically, the biorhythms of the plants get stuck and thereby cause them harm.
For green spaces, the most necessary and useful are the rays of blue-violet and orange-red color. With the help of blue-violet rays their vegetative growth is enhanced, and with the rays of the orange-red spectrum their development is accelerated. When choosing a source of illumination, it must be borne in mind that it must emit the energy of red light several times more than blue light.
The light source must be installed from above so that the radiation from it spreads throughout the room in which the plants are located. Care must be taken that the lamps do not obstruct the penetration of natural light into the room. Light fixtures also installed on both sides, as green pets always reach for the source of light.
Types of lamps and their characteristics
All lamps have certain advantages and disadvantages. To choose the right lamp for plants, you need to consider the main types of these sources of artificial lighting.
They cannot provide greens with certain rays of the blue and red spectrum. During work, they become very hot, which negatively affects the plants. Their better used with fluorescent lamps, since their main emission spectrum is blue-violet.
They have the following advantages:
- have good light output;
- do not get very hot during work (up to 45 degrees);
- consume some electricity;
- uniformly and well illuminate the entire room. Two lamps are enough to provide the green space with the necessary lighting.
Choosing fluorescent lamps, it is necessary pay attention to the labeling data, which should indicate the presence of blue rays in the radiation, which play an important role in photosynthesis. Lamps should be placed at a distance of 30 to 60 cm from deciduous plants and 20-30 cm from flowering and ornamental plantations. If fluorescent lamps are used as the main source of light, the main principle is a sufficient amount of light, and not the distance from the lamp to the plants.
Available in a wider range and also used for plant lighting. A variety of assortment allows you to choose the right light bulb for a particular phase or stage of development and growth of greenery. These light sources characterized by economical energy consumption and long service life, in the course of work almost do not heat up. This light source is the most cost-effective, inside which is built a device that regulates the start. At the stage of active development and growth, economical lamps with a specific marking of 6400 - 4200 k (blue), and at the stage of the appearance of flowers and fruit ripening 2700 -2500 k (red) are necessary.
This is the most intense light source. When the task is to illuminate a large space with low energy costs, gas-discharge lamps are best suited. Due to the mixture of gas that fills the flask, the color constantly varies, and the radiation is enhanced. Together with good data, they also have shortcomings: special ballasts are needed to ensure their work.
There are several types of gas discharge lamps:
- metal halide (metal halide).
Mercury lamps contain mercury and halide additives of the following metals: thallium, sodium, indium, which emit energy. Due to the additions, the light output increases to 60 lm / W, which is not the limit. This lamp is best in its spectrum. suitable for building green massbut not suitable for flowering stage. The term of operation is up to 10 thousand hours. Mercury lamps are made in the form of a flask, ellipsoidal and cylindrical in shape, inside which there is a ceramic or quartz burner.
Sodium lamps are used to illuminate a room with a large area, as they have bright lighting. The rays of the orange-yellow spectrum are pleasing to the eye. The term of operation is up to 20 thousand. hours In the lamp device there is a mirror reflector that directs the rays of light to the seedlings. The disadvantage of these lamps is high price and high explosion hazardtherefore, it is dangerous to use them in a residential building.
Metal halide lamps - one of the most efficient lamps, best of all, performing illumination of greens grown in artificial environment. In the process, the desired emission of a certain spectrum and high power is produced. These lamps reliable and have a long life, while easy to maintain. Their cost is quite high.
Used to improve the growth of greenery. They emit rays of the desired spectrum, weakly heat during operation and have good characteristics. The disadvantage is their high cost, so it makes no sense to buy them to provide the plants with the necessary light in the premises of a large area. These lamps are suitable for lighting the plantations in pots.
This is a light source that meets all requirements, which contains several LEDs of different spectrum. All the needs in the light of plants, these lamps fully satisfy. LEDs economical in electricity consumption and do not heat upand for their work no additional devices and devices are needed. These lamps appeared at the end of the 20th century. LED technology has a strong position in the market. At this time there are special lamps with a balance of blue or red color, which are designed and adapted for growing plants.
LED phyto-lamps are the most favorable for green spaces, since have a good emission spectrum - blue and red. The light output of these lamps is lower than fluorescent lamps. They are easy to use, as they have a conventional base and are inserted into a standard cartridge. The surface of the lamp is covered with a special layer that prevents overheating of plants.
Phytolamps are an artificial sun restoring the process of photosynthesis. Phytolamps produce a greater amount of carbohydrates, which helps to increase energy and oxygennecessary to accelerate the growth of greenery, its nutrition and health. Oxygen also enriches the indoor air, improving the well-being of people. The main elements of LED lamps, are modern LED-lamps, which are well recommended in everyday life and in production.
The main purpose of lighting is to extend the daylight to the plant: in the morning and in the evening for 3-4 hours. As a result, the time is about 6-8 hours, and on cloudy days up to 12 hours. To increase the flowering period, you can also extend the lighting time. For example, some plants, such as Saintpaulias, need to be additionally illuminated every day for 12-14 hours. This is a prerequisite for flowering.
It should be noted that green pets need a stage of rest and rest, because long-term forced flowering during the winter period exhausts them. The exception here is only greens, blooming in winter.
How to choose the right type of lamp?
To choose which type of luminaire is needed, it is necessary to consider the following parameters:
- the total area of the lit room, the duration of the period of illumination and its uniformity;
- distance from plantings to the lamp, the possibility of increasing or decreasing it, depending on the period of development of the plant;
- the desired radiation spectrum;
- radiation angle measurement.
Before purchasing a lamp, you need to sort the plants according to their species and vegetation periodand also ensure their compactness. For lighting small areas, there is no need to purchase panels with powerful lights. Here come small lamps, which are able to feed the plants with their radiation.
Placement and installation of lamps should be made in accordance with the rules of fire safety. Proper location improves the comfort of people in this room.
The use of lamps of a certain type and design will create good and favorable conditions for growth and plant development, since the lighting process satisfies the main need of plants for solar light