Electricity is certainly a blessing. However, it is necessary to handle it with caution, because household appliances can suffer due to a short circuit or voltage drops in the electrical network. And for a person who accidentally came into contact with the electrical wiring under voltage, everything can end in death. Protect property and others with a special device, and it will be discussed below.
- 1 Differential automaton: general information
- 2 Principles of work
3 Installation and wiring diagram of the differential machine
- 3.1 Mounting a difavtomat: connection diagram №1
- 3.2 Installation of the differential machine: connection diagram №2
- 3.3 Mounting of difavtomata: connection by selective circuit
- 4 Rules for installing a difavtomat in a switchboard
Differential automaton: general information
Differential automat (difavtomat) - is an electromechanical device, which has two main purposes:
- protect the electrical circuit from leakage currents to earth;
- protect the circuit from network overload and short circuit.
Differential circuit breaker combines the functions of a RCD and a circuit breaker. As a residual dipole, difavtomat fully protects the human body from electric shock in contact with the current-carrying part of electrical equipment.
In addition, the differential machine perfectly protects the network against short circuits and overloads, that is, behaves like a circuit breaker.
The design difavtomata differs from similar devices. In a small-looking case, two protective devices are successfully combined and operate: the RCD and the circuit breaker. Due to this, the differential automatic can quickly produce a protective shutdown. Accordingly, this can occur in the event of a leakage current, network overload or short circuit.
Principles of work
A built-in automatic circuit breaker provides protection against network overloads and short circuits. This protection module includes a contact release device. It will work if an electrical overload or short circuit occurs. Also, the machine has a reset rail. It is driven by external mechanical stress.
To protect a person from the effects of electricity, a differential protection module is built in to the differential operator, which includes a differential transformer. it the device conducts a constant comparison of the currents flowing through it at the entrance and at the exit. If a difference is found that is dangerous, the protective module using an amplifier and an electromagnetic coil converts an electrical current into a mechanical action, which also de-energizes the circuit.
Installation and wiring diagram of the differential machine
When connecting a difwavomat, one should be guided by the following rule: a zero and a phase of the circuit that the difavtomat will protect will be connected to the differential automatic machine. In no case no ground wire can be combinedcoming from a machine with another zero wire. This will disable the diphiftomat.
Mounting a difavtomat: connection diagram №1
The first wiring diagram protects all electrical groups with one differential automaton. The device is installed at the input of the circuit.
In the second scheme, a difavtomat connected to the circuit protects a specific electrical group. This option used for the development of reliable electrical roomwhere the electrical group is located.
If the difavtomat is connected in the first embodiment, then the wires with the supply voltage are supplied to the upper terminals of the device, and the load from each group separately is connected to the lower terminals. In this case, the groups are pre-divided by electrical switches.
The main disadvantage of this connection option is that in case of an emergency operation of the machine, all electrical groups will be completely disconnected.
To avoid false triggering of the input difftomat, it is recommended to use an automaton with a leakage current of 30 mA.
Installation of the differential machine: connection diagram №2
This variant of protection of the electrical network with a diphiftomat is considered the most reliable and convenient. Often this scheme is used in areas with high electrical safety requirements or in wet rooms - kitchen or bathroom. The peculiarity of the second diaphragmatic connection scheme is that the emergency shutdown of one difavtomat does not entail disabling the rest. Of course, this is a positive moment of such a connection scheme for a differential automaton to protect the necessary group lines. However, this scheme is more expensive than the first.
Mounting of difavtomata: connection by selective circuit
It is possible to understand how the selective connection scheme differs from the non-selective one, using the example of two schemes below.
For ease of understanding, we describe these schemes as conditional electrical wiring diagrams on the staircase of the house. The introductory difavtomat is placed in the switchboard on the site, and let the remaining difavtomaty be installed in three apartments.
Scheme with selective connection diphiftomate.
The principle of operation is as follows: if due to damage, an emergency shutdown of the machine occurs in one of apartments, the automata in the remaining apartments and the difavtomat in the switchboard will continue work. In the selective scheme, difavtomat has the designation "S" - selective.
Diagram without selective connection of a difactomta.
When triggered to turn off the machine in the apartment, there is a disconnection of the typewriter and in the switchboard. In addition to the damaged line, two workers are de-energized. This is because Diffautomat in the switchboard is designed for a leakage current of 100 mA, and tap-off machines are designed for 30 mA. It is very important to choose the correct leakage circuit breaker.
Depending on the type of the device, the connection scheme will be either selective or non-selective.
Rules for installing a difavtomat in a switchboard
Connecting the difavtomat in the switchboard, you need to follow certain rules.
- Connect the phase to the input of the difactomta, that is, to the place where the top of the device is marked with “1” or “L”.
- Next to them will be the letter “N” - this is the input of zero on the difavtomat.
- The phase output from the device is at the bottom and is labeled “2” or “L”.
- The zero output from the device is right there and has the designation "N".
Diftautomat connects, following the instructions attached to the device.
The master making the connection must be clearly aware of which of the wires and where to connect. The phase can be determined using an indicator screwdriver.
Difavtomaty connected as a single-phase network and a three-phase AC network.
Connection of the differential automatic machine is carried out with observance of all electrical safety measures.
If there are not enough funds or not enough space in the switchboard, then you should choose the scheme №1. But it is necessary to take into account that if a water difavtomat works - the whole apartment will be de-energized. Also in this scheme it is very difficult to find faults.
If there is time and desire to tinker with a more complex scheme, enough finance to buy difavtomat, and there is also a lot of space in the switchboard, then you can safely choose the scheme №2. It will ensure reliability and safety. Indeed, in the event of an accident, only one line will turn off, and therefore, it will be much easier to find a fault in such a scheme.
As for the selective and non-selective schemes, they, regardless of the choice of the type, considered very reliable and may well protect people, household appliances and the network.