Many did not even think about what radiation is, until in 1986 there was a catastrophe at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Soviet citizens have since begun to acquire radiation dosimeters. The accident at Fukushima which happened not so long ago once again confirmed that the mortal danger is not so far from us, and no one is immune from its harmful effects.
Radiation is the radiation that the human body provides extremely negative impactthat can be fatal. The peculiarity of this radiation is that it is absolutely impossible to detect it with the naked eye. It traps a person anywhere. This forces the Russians to acquire dosimeters that are capable of detecting radiation.
- 1 Types of dosimeters
- 2 How to choose a radiation dosimeter
- 3 The principle of operation of the dosimeter
- 4 Conclusion
Types of dosimeters
In today's market there is a large selection of instruments that can measure radiation. A variety of models differ in design, feature set, value. Moreover, all dosimeters have the same principle of operation and a set of basic capabilities. Therefore, before buying the device, you should consider the conditions in which it will be used.
Dosimeters are divided into two types:
Both of these species have advantages and disadvantages.
Household dosimeters convenient because they have a compact size and ergonomic design, they can be put in a pocket or hand luggage. Their main advantage is rather low cost.
Household dosimeters are also convenient in that they can promptly provide information on exceeding the permissible level of radiation in a particular place. Signaling about the danger, he allows a person to leave this place as soon as possible.
However, most of these devices are able to determine only to what extent the environment is contaminated. But to determine what dose of radiation has accumulated a person, they are not able, because the principle of operation household dosimeters are based on counting the number of ionizing particles trapped in an instrument with an external environment. Household appliances are:
Professional radiation dosimeters compare favorably with household ones in that they can accurately determine what radiation dose a person has accumulated. In addition, they have high sensitivity and measurement accuracy. These devices are used mainly by narrow specialists, as well as by people who are on duty in the danger zone.
Professional dosimeters do not have the original design and do not have compactness. However, in their characteristics they are far superior to the most advanced models, but their cost is quite high.
How to choose a radiation dosimeter
Experts advise: you should not choose a device that has a large number of functions. Using it in the domestic environment is completely useless, because it is unlikely that anyone will measure gamma, alpha and beta radiation separately. You can, of course, choose a device that measures neutron radiation, but its cost is very high. Best to use portable household Rad-X dosimeter. It has the following advantages:
- ease of use;
- small size;
- high measurement accuracy.
Special attention should be paid to ease of operation and simplicity, because sometimes there are absolutely no extra minutes to take a measurement, and the decision must be made immediately. A portable household dosimeter can measure radiation in 45 seconds. Moreover, he immediately shows what the excess of radiation in the subject over the natural foundation.
Should also pay attention to degree of error. This indicator is extremely important for low backgrounds, as well as if the device is used in frost or in fresh air, because at low temperatures the dosimeter often shows inaccurate data.
The principle of operation of the dosimeter
It is very easy to use this device. You can inspect your apartment, summer cottage, office, collected berries and mushrooms, etc. You should know that the natural gamma background is 10 - 30 microroentgen per hour. If these figures are exceeded, an urgent need to call the Ministry of Emergency Situations, so they sent the necessary specialist.
To get the most accurate indicators of the radiation background in the room, you should hold at least three measurements at one point. After that, you need to walk around the room, measuring the radioactive background of various objects.
If any object exceeds the normal background radiation by 1 - 2 microroentgen per hour, get rid of it immediately because such an additional source of radiation is unlikely to be joy. Such a small dose, of course, is not capable of causing serious harm, but the doses of radiation that a person gets during life, able to accumulate in the body, threatening serious health problems.
Radiation is not visible, it is impossible to discern, but the effects after radiation exposure appear almost instantly. If you suspect that in a particular place radiation background exceeded, you must purchase a radiation dosimeter. It can be used to survey the premises, building materials, food for contamination with radioactive elements.