People who live in their own private house or at the cottage, must necessarily protect themselves from the possibility of electric shock. To do this, the main electrical installation in a private house must be connected to the ground (grounded) using a conductor. Even a person who is not familiar with electricity can independently make grounding for his private house. Consider how you can make it in the country, and its basic schemes.
To safely use electricity in the country, you need the correct grounding circuit, which combines all household electrical appliances.
- 1 Why do you need a ground loop
- 2 Main types
- 3 What home appliances need to be grounded
- 4 The principle of grounding
5 How to make a ground in the country with their own hands
- 5.1 DIY ground loop circuit diagram
- 5.2 Ground check
- 5.3 Another way to ground the house with their own hands
Why do you need a ground loop
Grounding for a home is the connection of electrical installations with a metal circuit, which
In addition, a great danger metal objectswhich may be located next to the faulty device. These can be: water pipes, heating pipes and so on. Even with a slight touch to them, the chain can close. As a result, a deadly current will flow through the human body. Therefore, many modern electrical appliances are equipped with a special power cable, which has a three-pin plug. Appropriate outlets should be installed in the house.
- Protects against electric shock.
- Reduces the level of high-frequency magnetic interference emitted by household appliances.
- Ensures the safe operation of electrical devices that work where humidity is elevated. For example, washing machines, boilers and water heaters.
- Reduces noise interference.
Due to grounding, the owner of a country house can be sure that during a power surge in the network, the household appliances in the house will not deteriorate and no one will suffer.
The grounding circuit can be divided into two types: working and protective grounding.
Protective. Electrical equipment is connected to earth. This is the most common and simple variant of protection against electric shock.
Working ground. It is used when it is necessary to prevent the increase in voltage that occurs when insulation is destroyed. For example, when hit in the house of lightning.
What home appliances need to be grounded
Boiler. Its grounding is one of the most important moments. The fact is that the material of the boiler is often made of stainless steel, and it badly withstands the effects of stray currents that are discharged from the ground. This stray current can hit a person who is taking a shower, or by simply touching the boiler.
Washer. It has a high electrical capacity, which is formed due to humidity in the room.
Computer. Its power supply is designed in such a way that a working leak can be even greater than that of a washing machine.
Electric stove. It has high power, and as a result, a high probability of breakdown.
The principle of grounding
If a person comes into contact with a device that has a voltage on the surface, the current flows into the ground not through a human body, but through a conductor. This is because in a person the resistance of the body is one kilo-ohm, and in the conductor - four ohms. Therefore, the current will choose the easiest and fastest way to travel from the device to the ground, which has a high electrical intensity.
The simplest example of grounding is a lightning conductor (lightning conductor). This ground connection is only between earth and sky. The electric discharge enters the long metal pin, and without affecting the residential structure itself, goes into the ground. In the general grounding circuit lightning rod is also included.
How to make a ground in the country with their own hands
This scheme consists of three electrodes, which are dug into the ground, and a metal welded structure that diverts electricity. The use of several electrodes is necessary in order to have enough area of the grounding circuit for protection.
The most important thing is not to place the electrodes at a great distance one from another. Otherwise, the surface of the simulated area can be broken, and the effectiveness of the grounding circuit is much reduced.
Home grounding is made of steel with a different coating or from tinned or galvanized copper.
DIY ground loop circuit diagram
The height of the electrode that digs into the ground should be between two and three meters. The electrodes are located on the ground according to the principle of an isosceles triangle. It should be noted that the distance between them must be at least one meter. The metal plate binds them together. It is attached to the electrodes by welding.
How to make a private home grounding? For this you need:
- Metal corner size of 50x50 millimeters and a length of two to three meters.
- Metallic platinum with dimensions of 40 x 4 millimeters.
At the selected site, it is necessary to mark the isosceles triangle, whose sides will be three meters.
By marking, a trench of seventy centimeters in depth is dug out, and in the corners it is necessary to drive in the corners, which will be the grounding electrodes.
Electrodes need to be connected by a metal strip and with the help of steel wire to attract it to the house. In the place where there will be a distribution of the grounding circuit throughout the house, a connection is made (bolted) to the copper wire and must be distributed over the engineering power grid. After that you only need fill up a trench by land.
Before you start the earthing system in the country in operation, it must be checked for operability. To test the performance of the system, you must use a special device called an ohmmeter. You need to know that for a private house the resistance should not exceed thirty ohms. This is provided that the house is connected to the network voltage of two hundred twenty volts.
The ideal measure of resistance can be considered a zero value. This suggests that electricity is completely extinguished by the earth. But in practice, an ideal indicator is impossible to achieve. Therefore, there are special standards values that are calculated on the basis of their design features of the grounding circuit. You can look at the diagram.
It should be noted that in the absence of such a device, it is possible to check the performance with a simple light bulb, connecting one contact with the phase in the network, and the second with grounding. The more brightly the light bulb burns, the less resistance in the circuit.
Another way to ground the house with their own hands
This method is also quite effective and can significantly reduce the amount of earthworks. It is about grounding in the basement. It is in the basement that it is possible to install ground loop. With this installation, you need to retreat at least one meter from each wall. Electrodes need to hammer to a depth of one or one and a half meters. This will significantly reduce the time to install the ground, and the grounding efficiency will remain at a high level. You can look at the diagram.
So, grounding on the summer cottage, made by hand, can greatly increase security level country house, provided that the installation is done correctly. Despite the fact that this process is quite laborious, even beginners who have not previously engaged in electromechanical work can cope with it.
It should be noted that it is very important to use only high-quality materials during work and it is imperative that safety precautions be observed during work.