The norms of state norms on construction, set forth in DBN 360–92, regulate the town-planning planning and development of rural and urban settlements. These rules apply to the design of the newly created, reconstruction and systematic restructuring of existing cities and towns.
These provisions of the DBN 360–92 are binding for all government bodies, regional and local governments, organizations of all types of ownership, public unions of civilians performing the functions of design, construction and landscaping in urban and rural settlements.
- 1 General provisions
2 Designing cities and towns according to DBN 360–92
- 2.1 Functional city planning
- 2.2 Location of public urban centers
3 Planning of rural settlements in accordance with DBN 360-92
- 3.1 Reconstruction of townships
- 3.2 Public rural center according to DBN standards 360–92
4 General requirements for residential area
- 4.1 Residential Planning
- 4.2 Designing buildings in the territories and the rules for the reconstruction of residential areas
- 4.3 Carrying out the estate building according to the rules of DBN 360–92
The drafting of urban and rural developments is based on laws that are relevant to urban planning and district programs to address major environmental, social and economic tasks. Settlements are designed in a single system of settlement of the country, taking into account the territory of administrative centers, social and economically established areas and natural conditions.
The basis of the layout of settlements and their development is based on a concept that allows individual groups socially and economically and ensuring the realization of human rights in accordance with Constitution.
The development of settlements is based on the established and existing system of cities and villages, new settlements are projected in connection with construction of enterprises, mining or evacuation of people from ecologically problematic places or areas catastrophes.
Cottage villages and gardening partnerships are located on those lands that are not used in the future to expand urban areas. Long-term design of urban new buildings provides for the creation of multifunctional natural areas for the location of the urban economy. When planning cities and towns, green areas are designed for recreation of the population and ensuring ozone exchange of the environment.
Designing cities and towns according to DBN 360–92
Functional city planning
The territory of the settlement is divided into varieties of territories according to the method of use by the population:
- residential area;
- production part;
- recreational landscape zone.
The residential territory includes in its composition the entire residential complex together with the public sector, hospitals, educational institutions, city government buildings, markets, religious organizations. All street and transport networks between these buildings also belong to this zone. Green areas in the form of gardens, parks, squares and other green areas are referred to residential areas.
Production part of the city accommodates industrial enterprises and production facilities equivalent to them. Scientific institutes with experimental workshops and sites form part of the production area. These include green areas, are designed to protect against the economic activities of workshops, warehouses and individual utility facilities, defense companies. The transport network in the industrial zone is referred to as production areas. Allowed to place outside the production area of small industrial enterprises, whose work does not involve the emission into the surrounding atmosphere of harmful impurities and does not create strong noise.
The structure of the recreational landscape zone includes:
- water areas and green spaces within the city;
- green areas and various parts of the natural landscape;
- forest parks, parks, urban green areas, forests;
- protected agricultural landscapes, land;
- country areas of long and short rest;
- resorts in the treatment area.
Improving the planning of the city structure is tied to the locations of historical and architectural monuments, protected zones of architectural monuments.
Location of public urban centers
In the zones of the main structural-planning sites of the city, there are areas for the construction of cultural and social facilities and objects of the public center of various directions. The number of buildings of this type is determined on the basis of the size of the village and the needs of the population in certain services. On the number of public buildings and, accordingly, the size of the planned territory, influenced by historical preferences, planning structure, relief features and the role of the settlement in the resettlement system.
The urban community center is considered as an interconnected system of centers of large planning districts, industrial zones and other structures. Each planning system allocate a certain system of streets, squares, highways and pedestrian paths. The size of the area of a public center is influenced by the number of population, the administrative significance of the area, the plans for the development of the territory, and the natural conditions.
The structure of the city-wide center, in accordance with DBN 360–92, includes objects of operation in health, cultural and educational activities that require location in other areas.
The most important are multifunctional centers and complexesformed from several institutions and buildings. They are located in the building of the urban community center and are endowed with relevant functions. Sometimes they are designed at the entrances to major cities or placed on the central axes of other functional areas.
Specialized centers, sports, health, educational and scientific, not requiring a lot of space for the device, are being built in any area of the city. Those of them that are located on a large territory plan at the entrances to the city or at the intersection of the central axes of two or more areas of the city.
Planning of rural settlements in accordance with DBN 360-92
Territory of rural settlement by functions divided into two zones:
- residential type buildings;
- production area.
The residential territory of a rural settlement consists of residential premises, surrounded by functional buildings, providing a variety of human activity. These include institutions, service companies, green parks, squares for recreation, boulevards, streets, parking lots, ponds.
The structure of the industrial zone according to the norms of DBN 360–92 includes sites with enterprises located on them. product processing agricultural production, car repair shops and agricultural machinery bases, its repair and maintenance. These include warehouses and utilities, sections of individual and private farms.
Reconstruction of townships
Sometimes required redevelopment of rural settlementsIn this case, actions are stipulated by the DBN standards 360–92:
- improving the sanitary and hygienic state of life of people by streamlining the previously used functioning, enterprises processing agricultural products outside the village in the production area, the movement of large transport routes to settlement bypass;
- preservation of the existing network of streets, compact improvement of the location of pedestrian and automobile roads;
- replacement and liquidation of a decaying housing stock while maintaining livable and social functions of capital structures;
- providing production activities of all forms of rural property, rent, private farms, including for residents of homesteads;
- ensuring the improvement of domestic and cultural level through the construction of new missing public buildings;
- an increase in the territory of a rural settlement due to the involvement in settlement of marginal lands unsuitable for use in agricultural production;
- laying new networks of engineering and technical communications, the implementation of additional landscaping and improvement of the territory of the village.
Public rural center according to DBN standards 360–92
Considering the functional features of the rural settlement, the community center is referred to as the leading structural element of social and cultural life. It consists of control buildings and premises of cultural and community services and an area of mass events and festivals.
The recommended standard area of a community center without the surrounding park areas and long-distance sports fields in According to the tables in DBNs 360–92 per inhabitant of the village, it is 8 m2 in small villages and 12 m2 in large cities. The community center is divided into zonal functional areas, depending on the purpose of various rooms and buildings.
Open space for parties and public events designed with 700–800 m2 for one village resident. In large villages, where the public-household center has not only internal value, but also district, buildings community center connects with other organizations, given the walking paths in the direction of production and cultural needs.
General requirements for residential area
The design solution of the residential area is carried out depending on the size of the settlement and its structure, using the relationship with other parts of the settlements. The structure of the residential area includes and interconnected work public areas, application locations environmentally friendly work, landscaped common areas, car and pedestrian of the way.
Calculation of the size of the residential zone of the village is carried out depending on the number of residents, with the condition that each family is provided with a separate housing. Determination of the size of the residential area is carried out on the basis of planned indicators of increasing the number of inhabitants of a particular locality, considering the size and number of floors standard homes in this area. For proper planning, they take into account the dwellings of citizens, built on the personal savings of each citizen.
The design of a new housing stock is carried out in free new territories that are not used for industrial and rural activities, and in areas where old buildings are being renovated. Planning of the residential zone is carried out taking into account the climate, remoteness from the city center, the placement of ancient monuments and architecture, the height of existing buildings, and the terrain.
Placement of manor buildings is recommended to do in the most suitable for building area of the village, taking into account the planned development of the village. This should be done within the city, in the free territory, including areas for building that were previously considered unsuitable. To accommodate private estates well reconstruction zones fit housing stock. In the reserve areas and zones included in the city limits, they plan to build private houses with a plot of land.
Designing buildings in the territories and the rules for the reconstruction of residential areas
Within the residential area, there is a primary element of the residential structure, which received the name of a residential quarter. It is distinguished by the restriction on the area by means of automobile or pedestrian streets, natural obstacles, an area of about 40 hectares with a full set of public buildings of local importance.
Quarters with an incomplete set of social, cultural and social structures are formed in small cities and towns and in conditions of complex relief manifestations. If manor development of a quarter is carried out, then the area of a quarter with incomplete public infrastructure can be increased. Kindergartens and schools in neighboring neighborhoods requires the design of safe pedestrian crossings.
The second component of the residential area is the residential area, this structural element has a design area from 80 to 400 hectares. A residential block is formed in its location, enterprises and institutions with a radius of action of up to one and a half kilometers are located. The border of the area is served by large highways and roads of public importance; natural relief barriers can be used. Areas at the design stage are formed as separate independent units.
Another element of the residential structure is a residential area, by area exceeding 400 hectaresWhich includes several residential areas. Such structural elements of the residential zone are characteristic of large cities and megalopolises. They are formed as a single organism with the placement of all public and industrial areas for urban use. As part of residential areas build several areas, working in conjunction with each other.
The area and type of structural elements is determined by the conditions of location of urban settlements. In large cities, a residential area consists of residential areas and residential areas that may not be included in these elements.
Carrying out the estate building according to the rules of DBN 360–92
When planning the residential zone of the estate building, it is necessary to separate the elements of the structural unit, which depending on the size of the village or city, the required level of comfort and economical location. Structural units residential area when performing the estate building is considered to be:
- in areas up to 10 hectares there are groups of residential buildings without public use;
- residential areas with incomplete provision of public amenities are located on the territory of up to 50 hectares;
- full service of regional significance is located in residential areas with an area of more than 50 hectares.
On the area allotted for building estates, design structural elements associated with the planning development of the village and a full-fledged system of public buildings. The area is formed by separate residential houses with personal plots, providing for the location of economic structures or with their absence. Such areas contain residential buildings, not exceeding the height of 4 floors. The size of the housing and its altitude depends on the local building conditions, the size of the plot, improvement of the surrounding area, the passage of routes of engineering equipment and other standards in accordance with DBN 360–92.
The area of land provided to residents for the construction of houses is regulated depending from the norms of local authorities or self-government and in accordance with the Land Code legislation. In the case of an existing building, the private plot is retained in the old dimensions, if this does not prevent the reconstruction of the residential zone of the settlement.
In the area of the site for the estate building includes the size of residential buildings and household buildings. The frontal width along the street is accepted depending on the layout of the area, the relief, the types of houses built or planned, and garages. Consider the condition of comfortable living and break rates between houses and sheds according to DBN 360–92. Be sure to respect the adopted indent from the red line.
Estimated population density is taken in accordance with the size of the yard area. Most often used two-story blocking carpet building on the area of the site within 200 - 340 m2. Sometimes use other building schemes, double row or nested.
Sites with a slope of more than 20% require a terraced type of building, providing for the construction of special passages for the passage of fire engines and ambulances. Between passages there should not be a distance greater than 100 m.
Public buildings for public use are located in the structure of the estate building in areas that are well accessible to all residents in special areas. They are building as part of complex buildings or in the form of detached structures. It is allowed to place them directly in a residential building with the obligatory preservation of sanitary standards, located in tables DBN 360–92.
The areas of the estate construction are provided not only by street walkways and driveways, but also by intra-driveways. The one-way carriage is 3 m wide, and two-way traffic is provided by the street width 5.5 m. Dead ends have a length of not more than 150 m, at the end there are areas for reversal or annular detours
Fruit and ornamental trees are placed in green plantings along the street. If the width of the street is less than 12 m, then planting and gardening is carried out with the help of front gardens of a private plot. In each group of houses of three to four elements there are playgrounds for games with gardening.
In urban residential buildings erected houses, installed separately or attached to them. The placement of buildings for household purposes or for raising livestock and poultry is not allowed within the red line of the site. Build them with respect local rules and regulations.
Fire-prevention distances between two residential buildings or commercial buildings depend on the degree fire resistance of the building and from the removal of combustible containers with gas or liquid to private homesteads plots. In DBN 360–92 applications, there are special tables for determining this distance.
The use of norms and rules of DBN 360–92 will allow you to build comfortable and beautiful cities and towns that perform the functions of providing all the needs of local residents.