Very often, in order to simplify the perception of power supply drawings, one or another method is used, one of which is a single-line system of power supply of residential premises, production or other buildings. Such a system allows you to understand and develop certain projects of increased complexity. Today we will tell how to create a one-line power supply scheme with your own hands, and what it represents.
1 Single line power supply
- 1.1 Design scheme
- 1.2 Executive scheme
- 2 Single Line Classification
- 3 Single-line DIY power supply scheme
Single line power supply
A key feature of a single-line power supply scheme is that such a circuit is out of lines only three-or two-phase circuits. Such a solution will make it more reasonable to use technical documentation and to combine several drawings in one project that are not related to each other.
By type of single-line power supply schemes are divided into the following:
The calculated single-line power supply scheme is most often used after the final calculation of the loads required for the power supply of one room. Often such a scheme is designed after the mistakes on wires and cables have been made.
Calculated single-line diagram includes the following:
- structural electrical;
- functional circuitry;
- wiring diagram;
- cable plans;
- fire safety project.
But the executive power supply scheme is used to recalculate the existing power supply system, most often, this is done in order to seriously update the already finished project.
The executive power supply scheme is a document that includes the following data:
- current network status;
- devices that are included in the network;
- recommendations for the elimination of certain deficiencies identified in the course of these or other technical measures.
Single Line Classification
During the design of power supply systems, different schemes are applied using their own hands, which reflect the planned work, the existing system or the separation of systems in one way or another. In addition to settlement and executive, single-line schemes are as follows:
- structural - contain general data about electrical installation, which is expressed in the indication of connections of power elements, in particular, transformers, power lines, tie-in points and much more;
- functional - they are made primarily for the purpose of abstract transmission of the actions of the mechanisms to which the power supply is connected, their interaction with each other and how they influence the overall security situation are also indicated. Such schemes are mainly used for the design of industrial facilities with a large number of machines, mechanisms and equipment, which also need to be applied to the scheme;
- principled - most often carried out according to GOST and other standards of a particular country, for example, IEC, ANSI, DIN, etc .;
- assembly - should be clearly coordinated with those or other architectural solutions and building structures, in particular, bearing. There are no special requirements for their design, the size of the equipment and the cross-section of wires need indicate clearly, you also need to specify the exact cable diameters and clear dimensions of fasteners and other elements accessories.
In addition to the listed schemes with cable plans, there are also special electrical circuits that are used in the design of displaying components separately.
For example, in microelectronics in order to display the microcrystal integrated microcircuitsneed special topological scheme. Such schemes are called mnemonic diagrams; they look like posters, where the operating elements are instruments and signaling equipment and all sorts of imitation aggregates. Today they are most often visualized on a computer monitor, where there is a manual decision-making function by the user.
So, we can conclude that single-line graphic systems should be created in accordance with the country's building codes and regulations. include such information:
- complete and accurate information about the equipment;
- calculations of the emergency shutdown of the power supply of the facility, either in whole or in part
- information about the autonomous power supply system, which is important at the design stage of private houses, which are located far from the central electric highways.
Single-line DIY power supply scheme
Such a single-line scheme of power supply of an object should meet the standards of GOST. The graphic image should include:
- three phases that feed the network room;
- lines of group networks that depart from the supply.
If you are making a diagram with your own hands for the first time, remember that the most important thing in it is to give with its help a general concept of the design of the power supply system of the room in question.
As a result, you should draw a fairly simple image that is required to clearly show the key parameters of the power supply network.
Everything is done very simply:
- draw a line that will determine the multi-phase power;
- next to it, put a figure with a crossed out stroke.
In this scheme, the number corresponds to the number of phases, and the crossed out stroke is their definition.
In addition, the drawing includes images of individual wires, it is necessary to depict on it additional details of the electrical circuit of the object. To know how to designate an RCD in the apartment, switches, contactors and other elements, study the corresponding GOST, which can be easily found on thematic resources on the Internet. In them you can easily find out how to designate one or another element of the system in your drawing with your own hands.
To protect group lines from overloads and common circuits of an object from electrical closure, you need to apply circuit breakers. The project, in addition to key components such as input or ground cables or RCDs, should include information on the presence of sockets or light switches in the premises.
Below we give an example of creating a single-line typical power supply scheme for a residential apartment, private house, industrial or social facility. So, it includes:
- point of connection of the object to the mains;
- distribution devices;
- the point of the device used to connect and its brand;
- sometimes need shield options;
- the power cable must not only be shown schematically, its section and brand must also be indicated;
- information on the rated and maximum currents of devices used in a particular room.
Also do not forget about the need to use approximate design loads, which may be the limit for a particular power network in your locality. Their implementation rules may vary depending on the requirements for the room.
Try to pay attention to every element, even the smallest, since the key project requirements are put forward by a company that supplies you with electricity. Such a single-line scheme of power supply of a residential and non-residential facility is a key document that is responsible for the operational responsibility of different parties.
If you want with your own hands and completely free to create a single-line project of an object, you will need ESKD, that is, Unified system for design documentation.
At home, with your own hands, you can draw it manually or a special drawing program on your computer. In particular, the program AutoCAD will help you create a project office, shopping center, private house or other construction site.
If you need to create such a scheme, but you do not master this work with your own hands, then you need to contact design office of your locality, whose specialists will help you to cope with this challenge