With the development of technology, classic incandescent bulbs are turning into archaism, and they are being replaced by LED light sources. Due to their low power consumption and relatively low cost, they are popular both in household lamps and in corporate environments. The warranty period for the replacement or maintenance of branded LED lamps reaches 3-5 years, but in fact, light-emitting crystals can serve 25 years or more. Why do so many lamps burn out, having not worked even a tenth of this period? It is a matter of design complexity and sensitivity to the environment. Therefore, it is important to know how to repair the LED lamp with your own hands, and what is needed for this.
- 1 The device of LED lamps and the reasons for their failure
- 2 Tools and materials for repair
- 3 Repair LED lamp
The device of LED lamps and the reasons for their failure
In some lamps, the body is missing - then the diffuser is attached directly to the base or radiator
Regardless of the type of lamp, power and manufacturer, in its design can detect the following components:
- The base. Serves for fixing the lamp in the cartridge. The most common screw base standards E14 and E27.
- Controller. An electrical board consisting of a microcircuit driver, a diode bridge, a transformer and a small (up to two dozen) number of other radio components.
- LED module. Interconnected light-emitting elements, which, as a rule, are mounted on a small aluminum radiator using thermal paste.
- Body A plastic cylinder that connects the base to the diffuser and forms the lamp housing with them.
- Diffuser. A plastic or glass piece, sometimes supplemented with lenses, that covers the LED module.
The most common cause of failure of LED lamps is overheating of the controller during long-term operation and / or using the product in unstabilized electrical networks with frequent jumps voltage. In addition, any electronics are sensitive to mechanical loads: falls, shocks, vibrations. This can lead to contact failure in places where the manufacturer has saved on the solder, in addition, LEDs that have broken away from the cooling radiator can fail due to overheating.
Tools and materials for repair
To test the LEDs use an adjustable power supply.
Repair of LED lamps requires at least a basic knowledge of radio electronics, soldering skills and installation work. First of all, you need pliers or round pliers, tweezers, a screwdriver, a stationery knife, a 40-50 W soldering iron with a thin sting or, ideally, a soldering station. In addition, searching for a fault site and monitoring the performance of work is impossible without a multimeter or a probe.
The main consumables will be solder and flux.
It is most convenient to work with thin lead-tin solders, the role of flux will play well the alcohol solution of rosin.
It will take electrical tape, and better - shrink tube. If one or more LEDs are to be removed from the radiator, purchase thermal grease. All this can be found in the nearest electrical goods store or in the building supermarket.
Repair LED lamp
It is easier to prevent the cause of breakdowns than to constantly eliminate the consequences
Repairs begin with the removal of the diffuser and the plastic case, if it is provided for by the lamp. Then they remove the radiator with the LED module - it can be mounted on the latches or with screws. Most likely, you will need to unsolder the two wires connecting the LED block with the controller. Pulling the controller slightly up and to the side, we find the attachment points of its wires to the base. It remains only to unsolder them, and the disassembly of the lamp is finished. Sometimes the cause of the fault is already determined at this stage and consists in the broken contact of the wires with the base. In this case, it is enough to solder the wire into place and assemble the lamp.
If the failure has not yet been discovered, you will need to diagnose the device. Check the integrity of the LEDs with a regulated power supply or “ring out” each with a multimeter. Faulty LEDs can be replaced if it is economically feasible. Then inspect the controller. Burnt contacts, blackening and deformation of the body parts will indicate a breakdown. Resistors and semiconductors additionally check with a multimeter. If it's a chip or a transformer, it's easier to buy a new controller or a new lamp. Other components are easy to replace with similar characteristics.
Analyze the cause of the breakdown. If the LEDs are burned, it may be because of an inefficient heat sink. Problems with the board? Consider installing a voltage regulator. The lamp is assembled according to the procedure already described in the reverse order.
We hope we have helped you to restore the performance of LED lamps. Let them serve for many years!