Devices that operate on the consumption of electric current, can be configured. For this there are special regulators. Today, a triac subtype is becoming increasingly popular. His significant difference was the two-way action. Due to the fact that the device has an anode and cathode, in the process of their movement, it is possible to change the direction of the current.
Do not think that this element can be replaced by contactors, starters or relays. It is the triacs that are durable, the parts on the device practically do not wear out. The main positive point from the use of a triac, was the complete absence of a spark in electrical appliances. The circuits that used bi-directional triacs were analyzed, their cost was significantly lower than those based on transistors and microchips.
- 1 Pros and cons of using triacs
- 2 Features of use in electrical appliances
3 How to make a power controller do it yourself
3.1 For soldering iron
- 3.1.1 Schema options
- 3.1.2 Assembly of the device
4 Device setup
- 4.1 Video: making a triac dimmer
Pros and cons of using triacs
Among the main advantages are the following:
- minimum cost of the device;
- long service life;
- ability to avoid mechanical contact.
There are disadvantages:
- to avoid overheating of the device, it is necessary to install a radiator;
- the triac is very sensitive to transients;
- there is no possibility to use at high frequencies;
- reacts to interference and noise.
Features of use in electrical appliances
Given the indicators that the triac has, it is actively used in the operation of household appliances, such as:
- lighting devices that can be adjusted;
- household building power tools;
- heating devices;
- devices with the presence of the compressor;
- washing machines, vacuum cleaners, fans, hair dryers.
How to make a power controller do it yourself
Today it is possible to install simple dimmers in electrical appliances. Consider several options for installing triacs.
For soldering iron
For this device, it is possible to assemble a device for adjusting power up to 100 W; only a few parts are needed. It is through it that you can control the temperature of the soldering tip, the brightness of the desk lamp, and the speed of the fan. The regulator itself can be assembled on the basis of a BTA 16600 simistor. Its distinctive features will be that in the circuit of the control electrode of the triac will find a neon lamp.
If you decide to use just such a view, then you need to choose the right neon lamp, it should have the minimum breakdown voltage. This is very important, since it is this indicator that will influence the smoothness of adjusting the power of a lamp or a soldering iron. If you install the starter in the lamp, you can not use a neon light bulb here.
Dimmer circuits are simple themselves. D226 diodes are used as a diode bridge, the KU202N thyristor, which has its own control circuit, is necessarily included. If you want to have up to 9 fixed adjustment positions, then you need to complicate the scheme a bit and add an element of logic - counter K561IE8. Here also the thyristor will regulate the load. In the circuit after the installation of the diode bridge, there will be a conventional parametric stabilizer that will supply power to the chip. It is necessary to choose the right diodes for such a circuit, their power should be equal to the load that the device will adjust.
There is another version of the scheme for adjusting the power of the bollard. In the scheme itself there is nothing complicated, no expensive or scarce parts. Using the LED setup, you can control the on and off of the device. The permissible output voltage ranges from 130 to 220 volts. For all devices, you can use a special voltage indicator. It can be taken from the old models of tape recorders. In order to improve such a head, you can add an LED. It will show the on and off of the device and will highlight the power scale.
Assembly of the device
Do not forget that for such a device must be selected the right case. It can be made from ordinary plastic, as it is convenient and easy to cut, bend, handle, glue. It is necessary to cut out the blank from a piece of plastic, clean the edges, and assemble the box with glue. The collected dimmer is embedded in it. When the power control device itself is assembled, it must be checked before commissioning.
For testing, you can use a conventional soldering iron or multimeter. It is enough to connect these partings to the output of the circuit, and gradually rotate the knob of the regulator. This will make it possible to determine the smoothness of the change in output voltage. If you have installed the LED in the device, then by its brightness of the glow, you can determine the decrease or increase in the output voltage.
There are power control schemes, with a load of up to 500 W or with an alternating current of 220 V. It can be home fans, electric drills. Here you need to use a wide range of devices, high power. Triac Regulator will be used as a phase control. The main purpose of the device will be to change the moment of switching on of the triac with respect to the mains voltage going through zero.
Initially, in the period of a positive half cycle, the triac is closed. As soon as the voltage starts to increase, the capacitor is charged and divided in two directions. As the mains voltage increases, the voltage on the condensate lags by the amount of the total resistance of the divider and the capacitance. The capacitor will charge until it receives a voltage of about 32 V. At this moment, the discovery of the dynistor takes place, and with it the triac. Then will begin to flow equal to the total resistance of the triac and load. Triac will be open for the entire half period. Thus, the power voltage is adjusted.
It is rather simple to assemble a triac power regulator, even without possessing special knowledge. Much more difficult to clearly understand the rules of its operation. It is extremely important that the above nuances are strictly adhered to. Otherwise, the hand-made design will not function efficiently and may bring problems related to the integrity and efficient operation of electrical appliances.