The LED is a semiconductor device that allows you to convert electrical current into light radiation. Structurally, it is a semiconductor crystal (chip), which actually emits light, a substrate, a housing with contact leads and an optical system.
As you already know, they come in different colors, it depends on the material of manufacture and various additives. In the case, as a rule, a single crystal (chip) is installed, but if there is a need, the manufacturer can install several crystals.
1 Features types of LED lights
- 1.1 Using LED for luminaires
2 DIY DIY LED Mounting
- 2.1 Light body material
- 3 Assembling the design of the LED lamp
Features types of LED lights
Their application is extremely wide, they can be divided into 2 groups:
Indicator (LED) - are used as indicators, due to the fact that they are dim and thin. Green lights are on your router - these are indicator LEDs, on the TV a light is on in the corner - this is also it.
Actually many where LEDs are used. In various electronic devices, the backlight of the car panel, the backlight of computer displays, LCD TVs and countless other devices.
Colors may be different: red, yellow, green, blue, purple, white, even ultraviolet. Remember that the color of the LED is not determined by the color of the plastic from which the body is made, but from the type of semiconductor material from which it is made. But most LEDs are made of colorless plastic, and the color can be recognized only by turning it on.
Lighting construction - are used, as you already understood, for lighting. In contrast to the indicator, they are distinguished by their brightness and power, with the rapidly decreasing price they are used in household and industrial lighting, desk lamps, LED lamps, lighting offices and work areas, wherever only can.
So how is it cheap, productive and ecological look lighting. The level of technology development allows them to be produced with a very high level of light output per watt. In high-power, mass-produced LEDs, this value reaches 140th Lumen (unit of light flux in SI). This allows their use in a very wide range of applications.
Using LED for luminaires
First of all, this is their main advantage - durability. Mechanically he reliable and durable. In theory, his lifespan can reach up to 100,000 hours. This is about 100 times longer than the incandescent lamps and 10 times longer than the fluorescent lamps.
But the life of the LED directly depends on it, the strength of the current supplied to it, the cooling of the chip (crystal) directly emitting the light itself, and, accordingly, the quality of the LED itself.
Branded products will be more expensive, but they will last much longer than ordinary Chinese nameless LEDs. This directly affects consumer properties.
It is also worth noting about environmental friendliness. They are environmentally friendly light sources, unlike fluorescent lamps that contain mercury.
Fluorescent lamps after their failure should be taken to specialized receiving points. And in our realities, few people donate such lamps to the appropriate points, but simply throw them away in a landfill, where they cause irreparable harm to the environment.
DIY DIY LED Mounting
And now let's get down to creating our own LED light, which we will do with our own hands.
LED (illuminating) - as mentioned above, consists of a crystal, a substrate, a housing with contact leads and an optical system (lens). For the lamp we use 8 pcs. Powerful 1W LEDs. This will make a large area of illumination.
Driver (power supply) - to convert AC 220V to DC for supply to scheme. It is necessary to determine the main criteria for choosing a driver, they consist in the power of the LEDs used, these are 1W, 3W, 5W. It also consists in the number of LEDs, the requirement for protection from external influences.
Please note that in the absence of a driver, you can use limiting resistorsbut the driver would be preferable. Why ask you not to save on the driver? Just look at the market, a bunch of inexpensive LED lamps with a bunch of LEDs and relatively inexpensive.
But as a rule, such lamps do not last long, 4–5 months, and during this time they still manage to lose almost not half the brightness, all of this is due to the fact that in this lamp saved on the driver, the ego is simply not put. And since we are tuned to the long work of our lamps, made with our own hands, we will use driver as a necessary component of the device.
Light body material
For the manufacture of the case, you can use the old lamp. It is advisable to take metal case, since the LEDs are semiconductors that pass an electric current, and are accordingly heated.
Temperature is one of the main indicators of durability, so it is important for us that there is good cooling.
In the case of an overheating LED, the service life is reduced several times. The case can be taken from an old fluorescent lamp, or from another object that fits us.
In case there is no metal case, but there is only a plastic one, then this situation can be slightly corrected by gluing directly onto the plastic case of the lamp. aluminum tapewho can take a little heat.
Assembling the design of the LED lamp
We proceed directly to the assembly of the lighting device with your own hands.
LEDs with factory aluminum substrate mounted on the radiatorwhich in this case is the metal case of the lamp or, if the case is plastic, then aluminum tape, glued to the case, the main thing here is heat removal. Soldering LEDs in the circuit must be consistent.
Since we have a LED with a substrate, then we will mount it to the radiator using hot melt glue, hot melt glue allows you to remove heat from the LED, which will increase the life of the latter. The LED we take super bright 1W on the substrate.
We give its brief characteristics:
- The supply voltage is 3.2–3.4V (volt).
- Current consumption 350 ma (milliamps).
- Wavelength 6500K (Kelvin), cold light.
- Luminous flux 140 lm (lumen).
For the lamp should use LED driver 12W LED.
- Input voltage (AC): 100–240V.
- Output voltage: 18–46V.
- Output current (Output current): 300 ma ± 5%.
- Work temperature -45 +75 degrees Celsius.
Two parameters are important - current and operating voltage LED. Operating voltage can still be called "voltage drop." This term means that after the LED, the mains voltage will be smaller by the size of the “voltage drop”.
If it is simple, then if you supply power to the LED, which has a voltage drop of 3V, then for the next element in the network this voltage will be 3V less. Our lamp will have 8 LEDs with a supply voltage of 3.2–3.4 volts. On average - 3.3V.
In the driver for our lamp the range of this value is 18–46V. We just get into it, it suits us according to this indicator.
Another indicator of the driver and LED, which determines the performance of the lamp - is current consumption from LED, and the output current from the driver. This value is in the LED 350 ma, and in the driver 300 ma. This is also suitable for the operation of our lamp.
It should be remembered that the LED is not able to control the current consumption. it's the same important reason why it is worth using a driver.
Please note that the LEDs are located on an aluminum substrate, which will also contribute to heat dissipation.
It remains only to solder the scheme itself. Do not forget that for too long to keep the soldering iron on the contacts of the LED can not, so as not to cause harm in the form of overheating.
The main thing is attentiveness, if you solder everything correctly, you will bright and even light lamps, from 8 1W LEDs. Next, using glue, glue our LEDs to the lamp housing, which will serve to remove heat, as previously stated.
The driver is also mounted inside for compactness of the device. Closing scattering glass body, we get a beautiful lamp, radiating a total of 1120th lumen, and consuming 8 Watt.
Over time, if you wish, all the lighting in home translate to LED, again with your own hands, so as not to overpay the excess. The advantages of this lighting are obvious: low power consumption, environmental friendliness, pleasant and clean light. So boldly grab the soldering iron and make a high-quality LED lamp with your own hands.