The role of autonomous energy in the world is growing rapidly. The share of renewable energy sources (RES) already amounts to 23% of world electricity production, and its further growth will be provided through the introduction of new unconventional technology in household energy.
The global industry was able to launch the production of various compact, household generators at prices affordable to customers from average income.
Therefore, if until recently autonomous power supply for a country house was usually organized where it was not possible to connect to solar power, wind turbines on buildings in areas with quite satisfactory engineering infrastructure.
The autonomous power supply system at home (EPS) is a guaranteed supply of energy of the required quality and quantity, regardless of the presence and condition of external sources of power supply. Those interested in creating the SAE are those who wish to be independent of the monopolists, not to pay their inflated bills and never restrict themselves to energy consumption.
- 1 Calculation SAE for home
2 Solar kit (Solar)
- 2.1 The results of studies of the quality of the solar modules
3 Wind turbines and green tariff
- 3.1 Technical characteristics of wind generators for autonomous power supply at home
- 4 Small hydropower
- 5 Innovative combined electro - thermal cogeneration systems
Calculation SAE for home
Autonomous power supply at home is considered sustainable for the normal livelihood of private housing, if Selected sources will consistently generate electricity, regardless of any external factors. SAE schemes are compact, multifunctional and are assembled as a LEGO designer from the following standard equipment:
- Energy source (set - Solar, wind generator, hydro generator);
- controller for accumulating battery charge portable;
- electrochemical batteries and electrical substation;
The main indicator for the selection of equipment is the power consumption, you need to know it for carrying out technical and economic calculations of the EPS scheme.
Autonomous electricity for a private house (cottage), the calculation of the power consumption of a residential house with an area of 100 m2:
|№||devices and devices||Quantity, units||demand||using Ki||KWh|
|1||Internal lighting of the house, m2||100||0,04||0,8||0,8||2,56|
|2||Lighting of the local area, m2||80||0,03||0,6||0,6||0,864|
|6||Tank water heater||1||2||0,6||0,8||0,96|
|7||Air conditioning equipment||1||3||0,7||0,8||1,68|
|9||Kitchen appliances (total)||2||5||0,3||1||3|
Solar kit (Solar)
For use solar collector will require two things: sunlight and special equipment that receives, converts, stores and transmits the converted energy of the sun to the home network. This power supply scheme has an unlimited energy source, unlike fossil fuels, it is not scarce and becomes competitive when oil costs 70 dollars per barrel and above.
Currently most popular in the CIS countries are solar power systems of global manufacturers such as JA Solar, Trina, Jinko Solar, Yingli Solar, Canadian, Amerisolar, Perlight Solar, Solar World, Sharp, LG, Altek, SMA, ABB, Omron, LogicPower, Huawei, Fronius, Steca, SlarEdge, with a manufacturer's warranty up to thirty years old.
Technical characteristics of popular models of solar cells:
|Indicators||Delta SM 30-12 P||One-Sun 30P||SY-50WM||FSM 100M|
|2||% deviation of power||3||3||3||6|
|3||U idling, V||21,96||22,6||22,2||22,7|
|4||Short circuit current, A:||1,76||1,76||3||5,82|
|5||U at the point of max power, V:||18,25||18||18||18,6|
|6||Current max power, A:||1,64||1,66||2,78||5,38|
|8||Efficiency uninterrupted photocell,%:||15,57||17,4||17,8||18,1|
|9||Type of||Poly-crystalline||Poly-crystalline||monocrystalline flint 125x125mm||Mono-crystalline|
|10||Quality class:||Grad a||Grad a||Grad a|
|11||Number of diodes, pcs:||2||2||15||2|
|12||The degree of protection is distributed. emergency boxes:||IP65||IP65||IP65||IP65|
|13||Max U systems, V:||1000||1000||1000||1000|
|14||Temperature, оС||-40 ° C... + 85 ° C||-40 ° C... + 85 ° C||-40 ° C... + 85 ° C||-40 ° C... + 85 ° C|
|16||Dimensions:||678 x 360 x 25||450x510x25||645x540x30||1209 x 539 x 35|
The types of solar panels include the following:
- Monocrystalline (mono);
- polycrystalline (poly);
- amorphous (amorphy).
The results of studies of the quality of the solar modules
The results of studies of various types of solar models can be studied in detail and compared using the table:
|Efficiency loss per year,%||1||1||5|
Wind turbines and green tariff
Use of wind turbines for domestic energy purposes used in the world for a long time. Europe produces energy from the wind for many years - in Germany, Spain, Denmark and France. Many other countries, such as China and India, have recently begun to intensively develop own production wind power.
Wind turbines have three main parts: blades, mast and generator. Three large propellers are mounted on top of a large mast, which is driven by the wind. If the turbine produces more energy than necessary, it can be sent to the general power grid, at the so-called green tariff. Such rate it is applied practically in all countries of the world (except Russia).
In Ukraine, in 2018, according to the “green tariff”, the state returns for the supply of “extra” kW to the network in the following sizes:
- for private power plants with a capacity of up to 30 kW - 18 euro cents per 1 kW / hour;
- for land industrial stations 15 euro cents per 1 kW / hour;
- for the roof - 16, 3 euro cents per 1 kW / hour.
This approach makes it possible for the domestic electricity producer to recoup all of its costs for installing power plants with a capacity of 30 kW in just 4 years, receiving an annual profit of about 6,500 y e. As wind generators became more and more popular, they became cheaper and affordable for a wide range of consumers.
TO advantages of a wind generator include the following:
- The wind is free and 100% renewable;
- wind turbine does not pollute the environment with greenhouse gas emissions and other harmful substances;
- require to accommodate small areas, as placed at high altitude;
- create an interesting landscape;
- excellent backup source of autonomous power supply in remote locations;
- Low payback period when using the "green tariff" up to 4 years.
But wind turbines have their drawbacks:
- High initial cost of energy supply;
- the need for land for construction;
- the need for a sufficient wind potential of the area;
- size, building codes may not allow the installation of turbines in some places;
- noise pollution and emergency zoning for migratory birds;
- low level of use - up to 30% of installed capacity;
- high level of thunderstorm danger.
Looking at this data, it seems that such autonomous electricity has more “minuses” than “pluses”. However, wind power has a much lower environmental impact than electricity produced from coal or oil, therefore for residents of areas with stable energy windThis type of autonomous power source for a house is very promising.
Technical characteristics of wind generators for autonomous power supply at home
Each type of wind turbine has its own characteristics, which can be compared using a table:
|Brand / Manufacturer||Power, kWt||Voltage, V||Diameter of wind wheel, m||Wind speed, m / s|
|T06 / China||0,6||24||2,6||9|
|T12 / China||1,2||24/48||2,9||10|
|T23 / China||2,3||48||3,3||10|
|T60 / China||6||48/240||6,6||11|
|T120 / China||12||240||8||11|
|Passaat / Holland||1.4||12/24/488||3,1||14|
|Montana / Holland||5||48/240||5||14|
|Alize / Holland||10||240||7||12|
|W800 / Ukraine||0,8||48||3,1||8|
|W1600 / Ukraine||1,6||48||4,4||8|
Autonomous electricity for a private home using water energy - Hydro Power (hydropower), has advantages and compared to other types of renewable energy, if the system is designed and installed correctly, creates a minimum environmental risks for the environment.
As a rule, all that is needed for this is a river with a sufficient amount of water and a flow velocity that flows into a water turbine connected to a power generator. Depending on the size and required power generationThe minipower plant for hydroelectric circuits are subdivided as follows:
- Small Scale Hydro Power (small), generates electrical power from 100kW (1kW) and 1MW (megawatts), feeding this generated energy directly into the utility network, supplying more than one household farms.
- Mini Scale Hydro Power (mini-scale), which generate power from 5 kW to 100 kW, feeding it directly into a utility network or an autonomous system powered by an AC network.
- Micro Scale Hydro Power (microscale), a home EPS circuit for rivers, with a DC generator for the production of electrical power from hundreds of watts to 5 kW as part of an autonomous system.
Mini-hydroelectric power plants (hydroelectric power plants), depending on the type of water resources, are divided into:
- riverbed - small rivers with artificial reservoirs on the plains;
- stationary - high mountain rivers;
- water-lifting with water differential at industrial enterprises;
- mobile - water flow enters through reinforced devices.
The following turbine types are used for mini-hydro power plants:
- water pressure> 60th - bucket and radial-axial;
- with a pressure of 25—60th - radial-axial and rotary-blade;
- at low head - propeller and rotary vane in concrete devices.
Off-site power supply using Hydro, Mini Hydro Systems or Micro Hydro Systems can be designed using either water wheels or impulse water turbines. The generation potential of a particular site will depend on the amount of water flow, which, in turn, depends on the conditions and location of the site, as well as on the characteristics of precipitation on the site. Water wheels and water turbines are great for any small circuit hydropower because they extract kinetic energy from moving water and convert this energy into mechanical energy that drives an electric generator.
The maximum amount of electricity that can be obtained from a river or a stream of running water depends on the amount of energy at a particular point in the stream. But the water turbine is not perfect, due to power losses inside the turbine caused by friction. Most modern hydro turbines have a efficiency of 80 to 95% and can be used as a mini-power plant for a private house. Mini-hydroelectric reliable principle. Water, acts on the turbine blades through a hydraulic actuator, causes the rotation of the electric generator that generates electricity.
The process is controlled by automation systems. Reliable automation system protects equipment from overloads and breakdowns. Devices of modern hydrogenerators reduce to a minimum the installation work during the construction period and create optimal energy supply with electricity.
Autonomous power supply sources of mini-hydroelectric power plants are designed with full compliance with the parameters of the turbine and hydraulic unit to produce the required rotational and current frequencies.
The advantages of the mini-hydro are:
- environmental safety equipment;
- low cost of 1 kWh of electricity;
- autonomy, simplicity and reliability of the scheme;
- inexhaustibility of the primary resource.
The disadvantages of mini-hydropower plants include a weak material, technical and production base for the production of all the necessary equipment in the country.
Innovative combined electro - thermal cogeneration systems
Over the next two decades, humanity intends to dramatically increase the use of renewable energy sources. This is part of a coherent global policy to reduce losses in livelihoods and greenhouse gas emissions. Today it has become obvious that the use of simple single-resource schemes to create an efficient power plant for a private house will not be enough, you need to look for an alternative and independent way of further development SAE.
Cogeneration SAEs combine proven photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal energy (SHW) technologies into a single integrated system solar thermal power plant, which allows you to extract as much solar energy as possible to generate electricity, uses all the useful heat system. Solar collectors are water-cooling concentrating PV — parabolic devices that capture, rather than dissipate, what other PV designs are considered “waste heat”.
The architecture includes a series of ground or underground devices that independently track the sun along a single axis. The SHW compact heat exchange / storage system transfers heat to preheat water for domestic hot water. Thus, the world's most efficient mini-cogeneration autonomous power plants for suburban houses, providing not only uninterrupted power supply of a private house, but also its almost free heat supply