Quite a serious matter is the installation of electrical communications indoors. Electrical wires must ensure the supply of electricity of adequate quality, perform in full all the functions assigned to them, and meet fire safety requirements. To ensure the correct operation of the system, attention should be paid to the selection of electrical wires.
- 1 Types of electrical wiring for internal wiring
- 2 Varieties of electrical wires
- 3 Power cables for interior decoration
- 4 Conductor marking
5 Conductors for internal wiring
- 5.1 Manufacturing materials
- 5.2 Wire gauge
- 5.3 Selection of wiring
- 6 Informational electrical conductors
- 7 Safe electrical conductor system
Types of electrical wiring for internal wiring
First you need to figure out what is the difference between a power cord and a cable.
- A cord is a wire that consists of flexible conductors that are insulated from each other and covered with a protective sheath.
- A cable is an insulated wire that is twisted together and enclosed in total insulation.
Varieties of electrical wires
There are a lot of wire types for interior decoration, therefore the question of their choice worth it.
- PPV is a single core wire made of copper and having single insulation. It is recommended for laying in the cable channel or corrugation and for hidden wiring.
- PBBP is a mounting wire with flat single conductors placed in the outer sheath and PVC insulation. It can consist of three veins, the maximum cross section of each of which can be six squares. Wire conductors can be copper and aluminum. Used PBPP (PUNP) most often for lighting electrical wiring. It can also be used for outlets, if they include only low-power consumers.
- PBPPG - is a wire with twisted conductors, which consist of thin wires. This PBPPG (PUGNP) differs from PBPP. With the letter "g" is indicated that the wire is flexible.
- APV wire consists of aluminum twisted core and is one of the varieties of PPV. The veins are made of tightly wound wires and have a cross section of up to sixteen squares.
- APPV is the PPV consisting of an aluminum conducting vein.
- ШВВП is a flat twisted electrical wire made of copper used for domestic needs (for connecting consumers). A core consisting of thin wires can have a cross section of half to sixteen squares.
- PVA is the most common electrical wire used to connect residential consumers. It has twisted conductors and a circular cross section, as well as PVC insulation and sheathing. Wire gauge starts at seventy-five hundredths of squares and comes to sixteen. No wiring is done with this conductor.
Most PVS and ShVVP wires are considered popular. Despite the fact that they are not recommended for laying household wiring, they are most often used for this purpose. They are seduced by double insulation, which is quite difficult to damage.
Power cables for interior decoration
Most commonly stranded conductors are used. to connect buildings to the energy system of the city. Indoors, they are rarely used.
- VVG are the electric cables consisting of copper veins and polyvinylchloride isolation. They are resistant to aggressive operating conditions and are tensile resistant. These electric versatile products can be used up to ninety-eight percent humidity and over a wide range of temperatures.
- VVGz is a cable in which the space between the insulated conductors is filled with rubber filler or PVC harnesses.
- VVGp - cable with flat conductors.
- AVVG has the same characteristics as VVG, but its conductors are made of aluminum.
- KG is a flexible cable with twisted copper wires used to connect powerful consumers to the network. For example, heat gun or welding.
- NYM is an electrical product whose cross section can reach sixteen squares. This heat-resistant and waterproof cable is intended for laying power and lighting networks. It is unstable to sunlight.
- VBBSHv withstands high humidity and temperature. Used to connect stationary installations of detached houses.
- VBBShvng is a non-flammable cable.
- AVBBSHv consists of aluminum conductors and has the same characteristics as VBBShv.
- VBSBShvng — LS does not withstand toxic substances when heated.
All power cables are mostly have outdoor protection from mechanical damage and air penetration to power veins.
Electrical wires in the wiring differ in colors:
- Blue color indicates a working conductor.
- Yellow-green - protective zero.
- The blue wire, which has yellow-green stripes at its ends, is a combined neutral conductor.
- Any other colors (gray, white, black, brown, etc.) indicate the phase conductor.
Conductors for internal wiring
Today, the conductors are made only copper and aluminum.
Copper is resistant to the environment, durable on bends and almost not subject to corrosive changes. Therefore, copper wiring is more expensive than aluminum. However, it is better to pay once more money than periodically in the future to engage in the replacement of wires.
Aluminum wiring priced much lower, but has significant drawbacks:
- on kinks can crumble;
- oxidized when exposed to air mass;
- has low electrical conductivity.
When choosing electrical conductors for internal wiring, it should be remembered that the main focus should be on their cross-section, which will depend on the load on the network. For example, for the maximum power load will be required lived with a large cross-sectional diameter.
- To ensure the operation of the device with a power of 5 kW, it is necessary to perform internal wiring of copper wire with a cross section of 3.2 square meters. mm
- Aluminum conductors provide only sixty-two percent of the conductivity of copper wires. In this regard, with the required cross-section of copper lived in 2.5 square meters. mm, for the same conductivity, the aluminum wire should be 4 square in diameter.
Section recommended select with power reserve, as over time you may need to plug to this conductor some other consumer.
Selection of wiring
You should pay attention to how you will be installing the wiring. Depending on this, the profile and flexibility of the cores should be chosen. It is necessary to take into account the fact that single-conductor wiring is easily mounted in switches and sockets, and the cable of their multicore wires is more flexible and easier to separate.
It does not require the preparation of mines, and it is fairly easy to assemble. The main disadvantage of open wiring is non-compliance with electrical safety requirements. In addition, its appearance is not quite aesthetic. Therefore, for residential premises, it is used extremely rarely.
This is the most common type of wiring, in which the conductors are located inside the plaster. Its disadvantage is that it is rather difficult to repair or upgrade the system. Requires opening of mines and conducting new wiring.
The wiring is hidden in special plastic channels, and the laying of mines inside the wall is not required. Such an installation system has a rather aesthetic look and fully complies with all safety requirements.
Informational electrical conductors
These wires include television, telephone and Internet cables. Another of their name - low-voltage wires.
Telephone guides. TRP and TRV cable-conductor products are used to connect subscribers. These wires differ only in the material of insulation: TRP is insulated with polyethylene, and TRV is insulated with PVC material. The RG wire for the Internet connection can be used as a telephone cable.
Computer guides a huge variety. They represent a twisted pair, which is placed in isolation. In one cable such pairs can be quite a lot. They are produced in several versions: STP (pairs protected by an aluminum screen of copper), FTP (pairs protected by an aluminum screen of foil) and UTP (unprotected twisted pairs).
TV cableswhose variety is enormous today. They can differ only in their characteristics and have a woven protective screen, or a solid screen of foil, or, in general, consist of conductors isolated from each other.
Safe electrical conductor system
Providing premises with internal wiring requires an extremely competent approach. The types of electrical equipment used are becoming more and more and, therefore, the device of the home network is becoming more and more complex. In addition to the long familiar instruments in the form of refrigerators, washing machines, fixtures, now you may need to provide electricity to saunas, underfloor heating, air conditioning and much more.
NYM and VVGng-LS cablesas PVA wire, if necessary, are used for three-phase or single-phase networks without grounding and with grounding. The absence or presence of a grounding conductor is determined by the requirements of the PES or the project.
Installation of electrical wiring is recommended to entrust a special organization that has a license.
- Experts know the rules of installation and know how to apply them in practice.
- They will develop and coordinate the project of internal wiring of the room.
- In the event of a fire, the insurance company is interested in the power supply project and by whom it was executed. If the installation was performed by a non-specialized organization, then insurance is unlikely to be paid.