Welding these days is the most common way of joining two metal parts together. From the outside, it seems that cooking is simple and easy, but in fact the profession of a welder is quite complicated and requires certain skills. There is a lot to learn and take into account before embarking on the welding process.
For novice welders and for professionals working at heights, compact modern electric arc welding machines - inverters - are on sale.
- 1 Welding machines
- 2 Inverter Basics
- 3 Step-by-step instructions for beginners when using an inverter
4 Arc length
- 4.1 Small gap
- 4.2 Large gap
- 4.3 Required correct span
- 5 Properly formed weld seam and its defects
- 6 Reverse and direct polarity when welding with inverter
- 7 The process of welding with a thin metal inverter
The welding machine performs work using a power source and electrodes.
There are two types of devices:
Transformer-type devices are easy to operate, but they are heavy and large in size, durable and durable, and also very reliable. AC is required for operation. For welding use calcium fluoride or rutile melting electrodes. Unit
An inverter is an electric welding machine that DC operated, unlike transformer. At the input of the device circuit, the incoming voltage is converted from DC to AC, which then enters the transformer. The main difference of this type of welding is as follows:
- low weight;
- well-proven apparatus in the field;
- input voltage independence;
Inverters are very economical when using the device energy losses are ten times lessthan when working transformer models. The device has an efficiency of 85 to 90 percent.
With the help of the inverter can be connected both small and large metal products. Inverters in our time have become a major breakthrough in the field of welding units, old bulky transformers are gradually being forced out of use because of their size and difficulties in application. Inverter is available both in price and in classification to any welder, it’s enough for the work to know the basics and principles of the welding process itself.
The electric power consumed by this small welding machine goes exclusively to the work of the arc itself, which directly carries out the welding process.
Inverter-type welding machines are very easy to use and cost-effective as possible, this is important for beginners who have no experience of welders. First you need to understand that the inverter is an electronic welding machinetherefore, the main load when working with it will go to your electrical network.
For comparison: the old transformer welding machine, when turned on, produced a maximum and strong impetus of electricity, due to which there was a power outage in the network of your home. The inverter, on the other hand, has accumulative capacitors that first accumulate electricity, and then ensure the smooth operation of your power grid and gently ignite electric arc.
You can master and study the lessons of welding with an inverter in an accessible form. For our part, we can give you some useful and useful suggestions if you have any questions. In the article we will tell what you first need to draw your attention before starting welding.
An important point that needs to be learned is the fact that the inverter’s power consumption is directly dependent on the diameter of your electrode. The larger the diameter of the electrode you use, the more it will require electricity. Therefore, before starting work you should calculate the approximate maximum value of electricity consumed by your device, so as not to burn the wiring or appliances in your home.
In addition, for each electrode diameter used by you, the minimum recommended current strength is required, that is, if you want to reduce the current strength indicator, then the seam will not work.
If you want to experiment and increase the strength of the current, the seam itself will turn out, and the electrode can burn or stick very quickly. As you already understood, an important element for the welding process is the correct selection of the electrode and the current of the apparatus.
Structurally, the electrode consists of a metal rod, onto which a special powder composition is deposited. Powder coating is a necessary barrier to accessing the weld seam of ambient air. Environment negative effect on the formation of the weld, oxidizing it, which degrades the quality of the seam. Powder coating is also necessary to maintain a normal arc burning process.
For welding with an inverter, electrodes UONI, MP, ANO, OZS are used. The quality of the electrodes purchased largely depends on the transportation and the conditions of their storage. The diameter of the required electrode varies from 2 to 5 mm. It all depends on the material and thickness of the welded parts.
Step-by-step instructions for beginners when using an inverter
- Before you begin, you must have protection. You need to purchase gloves, not rubber, but from coarse cloth, a protective welding mask and a coarse jacket. it necessary for your protectionto protect your eyes and skin from heat and light exposure when working with the welding machine.
- Using the regulator on the housing of the inverter, you must adjust the welding current and pick up the electrode. We remind that it is necessary to use electrodes with a diameter of 2-5 millimeters. We adjust the welding current based on the parameters of the thickness and material of the welded part. On the case of the device should be an electronic or switch indication of the current. To prevent sticking of the electrode with the welded surface, it is necessary to slowly bring the electrode itself.
- Connect the negative terminal (ground) to the part to be welded. The welding process begins with the proper arson arc. It is necessary to bring the electrode to the surface of the workpiece to be welded at a small angle. Then, a couple of times, touch the metal surface with the electrode to activate the welding electrode. Hold the electrode at a distance of several millimeters from the workpiece to be welded, approximately equal to the diameter of the electrode.
- You should have a welding seam. To check the seam, you need a hammer, covering your eyes, to remove the scale.
This is the distance that is formed between the metal and the electrode during the welding process. It is important to maintain constant correct distance during welding.
The presence of a small gap will lead to metal does not have time to warm up completely, at the same time the seam will come out convex and not fused on the sides.
The presence of a large gap will lead to a jump in the arc, which will prevent the penetration, which means that the heated hot metal will lie unevenly.
Required correct span
Ensuring the correct constant distance will lead to good penetration and the formation of an excellent seam.
With experience you can properly control the length of the arcthat will provide you with the best result. The arc forms the weld pool, as it passes through the gap, while melting the base metal. It also ensures that molten metal gets into the bath.
Properly formed weld seam and its defects
In the process of welding, with the hasty movement of the electrode, a defective seam is formed. The bath line is lower than the surface of the base metal. If the ignited arc penetrates deeply and intensively into the metal being welded, it pushes the bath back and forms a seam. Therefore, in the process it is necessary to ensure that the weld is at the level of the metal being welded.
Perfect welding seam will help to form zigzag and circular movements. Performing movement in a circle, it is necessary to monitor the seam, evenly distributing the bath.
When the electrode moves in different directions in zigzag a good seam is formedAt the same time, control over the formation of a seam is necessary. In the process we form a seam, first from the left edge, then along the center of the bath, then from the left side, etc. You need to remember that the bath goes for heat.
An undercut is formed when there is not enough electrode metal, when filling the bath completely and while moving across. To avoid the formation of undercut, it is necessary to observe the outer boundaries of the seam, carefully observe the bath and, if necessary, make it thinner.
To control the bathroom apply the arc voltage located at the end of the electrode rod. While the rod is tilting, the bath does not stretch, but pushes. Remember, the more upright the electrode is in the welding process, the less welded the weld is.
When you hold the electrode vertically, the bath is pressed down, because all the heat is concentrated above it. It also spreads well around and melts.
When your electrode is slightly at an angle, all the force rushes back and the seam pops up (rises). When the electrode has a large angle, a force is applied along the weld vector, which makes it impossible to control a hot bath.
If you need to move the bath back or get a flat seam, apply the slope of the electrode at different angles. The work of the electrode begins with an angle of 45 degrees to 90, since this angle allows you to control the bath and perform welding normally.
Reverse and direct polarity when welding with inverter
With reverse polarity, reduced heat input into the product occurs. The melting zone is shallow, although quite wide. Can be observed cathodic cleaning effect welded surface.
With direct polarity, reduced heat input to the metal occurs. The melting zone is deep and narrow at the same time.
The process of welding with a thin metal inverter
Inverter is good for novice welders, as it has a number of functions, namely:
- hotstart - helps with the initial formation of the welding arc;
- arcforce - to prevent sticking of the electrode when it is at a close distance from the welded part. The function increases the welding current;
- anti-stick - prevents the device from overheating by disconnecting the voltage.
Everything these features are automatically enabled during an unforeseen critical situation, which allows beginners to perform welding at a good level.
In order that the weld seam on a thin metal sheet be formed of good quality and welded the sheets did not work out the burn-throughs, it is necessary to ensure that during the welding process you see the seam.
The electrode must be chosen smaller in diameter and positioned as close as possible to the metal. Then we wait for the red spot to form, a drop of metal forms under it, which will connect the thin metal blanks to each other.
Slowly driving the electrode along the surface of thin metal parts, metal drops are formed, which interconnect the workpiece, forming a welding seam.
After reading this article, you will learn how to operate an electric welding inverter. We hope the welding process will seem to you an easy and exciting experience. Before embarking on the welding process, read the inverter instructions and recommendations from the manufacturer, to protect not only the welding machine, but also your property from damage.