For a long time people use a heat-insulated floor for heating of rooms. It is authentically known that the Turkish baths, ancient Roman terms, Chinese houses were heated thanks to the warm air that passed in specially equipped canals under the floor. In turn, warm air was obtained from sources of open fire, i.e. from the stoves.
But progress does not stand still and at the beginning of the 20th century, during the rapid development of technology, electric pumps appeared on the market, thanks to which the heated floor was heated with hot water.
Already from the middle of the last century began to produce systems of electric warm coatings. In these systems, heating is carried out using cables. Recently, warm electric and water floors have become especially popular.
So, warm floor can be water and electric.
Electric, in turn, are divided into:
- 1 Electric cable floor heating
2 Film electric floor heating
- 2.1 Benefits
- 2.2 disadvantages
- 3 Water floor heating
- 4 How to choose a warm floor
- 5 How to install a warm floor
- 6 How to manage the warm floor
Electric cable floor heating
It is worth noting that the cable warm flooring produced in the form of mats, sections and cable on the coil. They have the same principle of operation, differ only in the method of installation.
Cable electric warm flooring is the necessary for you along the length of the heating cable. This cable stack in a zigzag or spiral, the gap between the cables should be from 6 to 12 cm. As a rule, the cable is mounted in a screed of cement and sand. Remember that it can not be cut into pieces during laying. 2 types of cable are used for heating: cable constant heating and self-regulating. In the device of warm coatings, a constant heating cable is used.
Warm cable flooring has the shape of a coil, it greatly simplifies the work on the installation of the cable.
If we talk about a warm coating in the form of mats, then it is a reinforced mesh. In the grid is embedded thin heating electrical cable. This type of heating system is usually placed on the ready-made screed.
Film electric floor heating
Film warm flooring is a polymer film into which bimetallic or carbon elements are embedded. Film thickness varies from 0.3 to 0.5 mm. You can see on the shelves of stores film floors in the form of rolls. You can divide the rolls into the number of elements you need. If we talk about infrared film floors, they are used under any coating, i.e. You can lay on top not only laminate and parquet, but also linoleum and carpet. Neither the top covering layer of tile glue nor the cement-sand mortar is necessary for this type of warm coating.
- The biggest plus of the heating coating is that it creates coziness and comfort in the room. Your floor will be heated to a temperature of 25–27 degrees. This makes it possible to use only this type of heating in small quadrature rooms (thirty to fifty square meters). In addition, keep in mind that, unlike radiators, electric flooring is invisible, which will allow your imagination to roam and realize the most unexpected ideas in the interior.
- If the installation of a warm flooring is done professionally, then this will allow you to avoid breakdowns and your repair will be painless and easy.
- Electric warm flooring is relatively inexpensive.
- In some houses it can be used as additional heating. For example, in homes where there are small children who spend a lot of time on the floor. Or if the house has insufficient centralized water heating.
- Of course, the heating coating has not only advantages, but also disadvantages. As a rule, electric flooring is most often used for linoleum and tile, because these are the materials we consider to be the coldest. Typically, in our country in the living room ceramic tile spreads mainly in the kitchen and in the bathroom.
- A huge disadvantage of electric heating cover is that you can not place it under the furniture, as well as weighty appliances and plumbing. This is due to the fact that the pressure of heavy objects on the cable can contribute to its overheating and cause damage to the entire heating system. Remember, all heavy objects you need to place at a distance of at least 15 cm from the cable laid under the floor.
- In this regard, before you install an electric floor heating, you need to think over the layout of furniture and household appliances. In addition, you will need to keep in mind the layout of the cable under the floor to know where you can rearrange appliances or furniture in the event of a rearrangement.
- To ensure more comfortable use, the occupied space for the heating system should be at least 70% of the total squared room / room. This ratio of the heated and the total area will make the choice of the floor reasonable, regardless of the heating system chosen.
- The disadvantages of the electric floor should also include a significant amount of electricity consumed and increased electromagnetic radiation.
Water floor heating
Let's talk about the warm water field. It comes in the form of a pipe system that is laid under the floor covering. And if electric floor heating you can install yourself, then for installation of a water heat-insulated floor you should resort to the help of experts. However, this type of warm floors is much more economical than electric. It is completely safe to use, you can safely put furniture on it (as we have said, you cannot put furniture on electrical floors). For water floor there are no restrictions on flooring. Because water flooring heats up graduallyIt cannot damage any coating.
How to choose a warm floor
Anyone who wishes to install heating at home will inevitably be confronted with the question: which is better to choose an electrical flooring, which should be paid for maximum attention, because today the market of building materials presents a huge number of types of warm floors, both domestic and foreign manufacturers. Most electric heating coatings are produced by Norwegian companies, Swedish, Danish, South Korean and Russian. Among the variety of warm flooring you will find single-core, twin-core cables with a heating effect, as well as mini-mats (very thin warm floors) and infrared film flooring.
It should begin with the fact that the electric heating flooring is able to emit a sufficiently large amount of electromagnetic radiation. However, it stands out if you use a single-core cable to install a heated floor. Strong cable, which you will find today on store shelves, practically does not emit electromagnetic waves. Concerning single core cables are now rarely used. By the way, in Europe they are completely prohibited for use in residential premises.
A warm flooring can have completely different characteristics. Therefore, not every floor is suitable for a particular type of flooring.
How to install a warm floor
In new apartments, in which there is no clean finish yet, you can install a heating cable. In this case, you will need to make a screed 5 cm thick of cement and sand. True, it will reduce the height of the ceiling. However, at the same time there is an opportunity to choose power for various rooms. For example, for a corridor or kitchen -120 volts per square meter, other unheated rooms, such as a sauna, bathroom, loggia - 150-180 W per square meter. Compared with mini-mats, the price of this heated floor will be slightly below.
If you stop at mini-mats, then their purchase will be about 25-30% more expensive than cable flooring. However, mini-mats have their advantages. They practically do not reduce the height of the ceilings, they also do not need to be covered with a cement-sand screed, and the absence of these heavy, expensive and dirty works can quite compensate their high price. The disadvantages of mini-mats should be attributed to the high cost and the fact that you cannot control their power. Power is determined depending on the manufacturer and varies from 150 to 180 watts per square meter.
When there is a question about the choice of heating flooring in already residential buildings and apartments, in this case it is necessary to look at the electric infrared heating floorings. As we have said, you can install this type of floor under any floor covering. To do this, you do not need a screed (except, of course, ceramic tiles). In addition, infrared flooring can be laid not only on the floor. It will perfectly heat the room or a separate part of the room, being located, say, on the ceiling or on the wall.
It does not matter what type of warm floor you stopped, before starting the installation, you must first accurately calculate the area of the floor that will be heated later. You must also calculate the cable length, taking into account the step between it. Depending on the type of underfloor heating, its installation will differ in how it is connected to the network.
How to manage the warm floor
If your heating deck supports temperature control, then for this there are thermostats that allow you to adjust the temperature in the room.
For control use special sensors. Produced a huge number of different thermostats with additional features and capabilities. However, 2 systems are most often used:
- With sensors that monitor the temperature on the floor.
- With sensors that monitor the air temperature in the room.
Thermostats enable / disable heating automatically.
Choosing the type of heating flooring for each specific room is a difficult task. We hope that this article will help you take into account all the subtleties and nuances that everyone who plans to acquire this know-how needs to know.
We hope our article on the topic: “How to choose an electric floor heating” will be useful to you and will be a good advice when choosing warm coatings.