Many modern devices have a heating element as the main part in their design. It is equipped with a number of devices that provide for the supply of electric current to it, electrical insulation of the element and protection against mechanical damage.
Among all the varieties of electric heating elements, the most common is tubular. It is actively used in the design of low and medium temperature heating devices. These elements are protected from external influences, including from access to air.
- 1 Device TENOV
2 Advantages and disadvantages of heating elements
- 2.1 Virtues
- 2.2 disadvantages
- 3 How to choose the heater
- 4 Operation of heaters
- 5 How to use teng correctly?
- 6 Useful information
- 7 Conclusion
Most of these elements consist of metal tube small thickness. It contains a spiral made of wire with a large amount of electrical resistance. The pins of the helix are connected to the contact rod. By means of the external terminals of the rod, the heating element is connected to the network. The material of the tube is most often carbon steel. From it make teny which during the work heat up no higher than 450C. If the heating element operates at a higher temperature or in an aggressive environment, then stainless steel is used as the manufacturing material.
In the design of the ten main component is the tube, which encloses nichrome spiral. Other components of the design of the heating element are:
- lead pin;
- sealing sleeve;
- nut for fastening;
To isolate the helix, a filler is poured inside the tube, which has good thermal conductivity, and along with it has high properties in terms of electrical insulation. In most heating elements, periclase acts as a filler, which is a mixture of magnesium in crystalline form. When the tube is filled with filler, it is pressed. The heating element can be bent to give it the necessary shape. For insulation of contact rods of heaters, a special material is used. The ends of the seal silicone lacquer, which has a high degree of protection against moisture.
Advantages and disadvantages of heating elements
To get a more complete picture of the heating elements, it will be useful for each consumer to get acquainted with the advantages and disadvantages of these elements.
Tubular heating elements, which are most often used in installations for heating water, have certain advantages:
- maintenance safety.
In contact with gaseous and liquid media, the use of these elements is quite acceptable. They are resistant to shocks and vibrations. In addition, these elements are explosion-proof. During operation of the tubular elements of heating, the working temperature can reach 800 ° C. This feature of tenov allows to use them in devices of inductive and convection heating. They can also be used in installations of infrared heating. In the process of making these elements, the spirals are sealed. It causes a high resource of water tenov, which can reach 10 thousand o'clock.
Modern heating elements differ in their design, which makes it possible to carry out their embedding in various heating devices. They can be used in domestic heating installations, as well as in industrial heating equipment. Currently available on the market teny cartridge type, in which the diameter can vary from 6.5 to 20 mm. Their main feature is considerable surface power. In addition to these, consumers are also offered heating elements with a developed heat-release surface.
If we talk about the shortcomings of ten, then it is necessary to note the following:
- high metal consumption;
- The significant cost of these elements due to the use in their design of expensive materials - nichrome, stainless steel;
- not too long service life;
- the inability to repair them in the event of a spiral burnout.
How to choose the heater
Choosing tenes for the device, it is necessary to take into account:
- appointment of heating elements;
- its power;
- Operating conditions.
With units of the surface of the tube, you can remove different power. It depends on the conditions in which the heating element is operated. The material is also of tube and filler material. When choosing a heating element, focus mainly on the estimated power that is required to heat water. When calculating use the following formula:
Pracch = (Cs x Rpol) / efficiency,
where Кз - safety factor (1,1 - 1,3), efficiency - efficiency, taking into account power losses.
Operation of heaters
The main reason for the failure of the heater is a violation of the tightness of the discharge ends. Another common cause of the loss of the performance element is corrosion on the surface of the shell. Overheating tena for water, as a result of which a helix break occurs, also leads to an element failure. These reasons arise mainly because of the significant efforts on the contact rods, which occur when connecting wires to the heating elements.
The resource of heating elements for water can be increased if you follow the recommendations below:
- You should not make significant efforts to the nuts of the contact rods. Otherwise, the lead ends will be sealed off;
- situations of operation of heating elements without water should be excluded;
- in the process of using tenes in installations, it is necessary to remove scale from the surface of the heating element every 3 months. It is necessary to avoid deposits thicker than 2 mm.
How to use teng correctly?
Most often tubular TENY lose their performance the following reasons:
- heater sheath unsealed;
- due to the transferred overheating, the ten tube was broken;
- rust caused by improper storage;
- Ignorance of the rules for the use of the heating element and safety.
To avoid such problems and extend the life of the heating element during its operation, it is necessary follow the advice of experts:
- When connecting the wires to the water heaters, it is necessary not to clamp the contact rods tightly with the nuts. In this case, the ends of the heating element will not burst;
- It is forbidden to turn on the teng without placing it in water. If a person first turns on the tubular heating element, and then pours water, this can lead to an explosion, the consequence of which could be injury;
- it is necessary to regularly, 1 time in three months, clean the heating element from scale.
Compliance with these recommendations will ensure continuous operation of the water heater.
For tubular heating elements used in the construction of washing machines, a special hard water represents danger. In its composition, it contains calcium and magnesium salts, which during the operation of the ten are deposited on the surface of the tube. The result is a white crust. If you do not remove it from the surface of the heating element, it can lead to equipment breakdown. To prevent undesirable consequences of contact with hard water heating elements, it is recommended to use one of the following methods:
- Antinucipin. This tool before using the washing machine falls asleep inside it. Due to its active elements, this composition in water ensures the effective dissolution of scale that has formed on the walls of parts. Experts recommend performing this procedure once a month with strict adherence to the dosage. Do not try to use cheap formulations. This can adversely affect the life of the machine. In old washing machines, in which there are traces of damage to the walls of the tank, anti-scaling should be used with extreme caution.
- Calgon. Some experts recommend adding an additive to the powder such as Calgon to remove scale from the parts. However, many experts call this method of disposal of scale rather doubtful in terms of its effectiveness. If the owner chose Kalgon or another similar supplement, then his expenses for using the washing machine will increase a little - each month you will have to spend 2 thousand to add to it. rubles.
TEN - an important detail in many devices. Having a washing machine in your home or actively using a water heater, special attention should be paid to maintaining the heating element in working condition. The most important procedure is regular descaling from the surface of the heating element. This is a guarantee of long and trouble-free operation of the tubular element. And after all, this is exactly what every owner of devices equipped with heating elements wants.