A LED is a semiconductor device that allows you to convert electric current into light radiation. A single 220 volt LED lamp saves a tremendous amount of power. Saving goes 2 times more fluorescent lamps and 10 times more than incandescent bulbs. If you use for the manufacture of such a lamp parts from a blown lamp, you can significantly reduce costs. LED lamp with your own hands can be assembled quite simply. But do not forget that for this you need to have the appropriate qualifications, as you have to work with high voltage.
- 1 LED benefits
- 2 Homemade lamps
- 3 How to make a LED lamp with your own hands
- 4 Simple LED Light Bulb
- 5 Types of lamps
Nowadays, you can find a huge number of types of chandeliers with LED lamps in stores. They have different advantages and disadvantages. Modernization of energy saving lamps allows you to take full advantage of fluorescent light. This applies to the most common fixtures with a base E 27. And the old members of this family were endowed with an unpleasant shimmer. Fluorescent light sources are truly a miracle. Compared with them, incandescent bulbs very losing ground. Their high energy consumption and low light output does not overlap the high color rendering index.
Durability is their main plus. Mechanically, it is durable and reliable. It is known that its working life can reach up to 100,000 hours. They are also considered to be environmentally friendly light sources, unlike fluorescent lamps, which, in turn, contain mercury. But as you know, fluorescent lamps have some drawbacks:
- The fumes contained in the tubes are rather poisonous.
- Because of the frequent on-off quickly can fail.
- The design itself requires some recycling.
The LED lamp can be considered the second revolution in the field of lighting. It works 5–10 times longer, more economically and does not require any special disposal. Although there is a minor drawback - it is much more expensive.
In order to remove this small minus and wrap it in a good plus, you can build a LED ribbon lamp with your own hands. This way you can reduce the cost of the light source. It will be much lower than that of fluorescent counterparts.. And also such a lamp will have several advantages:
- The lamp life will be a record 100,000 hours, but only when properly assembled.
- The cost of a homemade device is not higher than that of a fluorescent lamp.
- The effectiveness of watts / lumens far exceeds all analogues.
But there is also one drawback - there is no warranty for this product. It must be compensated by the skill of the electrician and the precise observance of the instructions.
To create a lamp with your own hands there are a huge number of ways. Using the old base of a burnt out fluorescent lamp is the most common method. Such resources are available in every home, so there will be no problems with their search. And also need:
- Diode bridge or rectifier diodes 1N4007.
- The base, which can be taken from a burnt out product.
- Directly led. They are sold in stores in the form of strips or individual LEDs NK6. One of these elements has a current strength of about 100–120 mA and a voltage of about 3–3.3 volts.
- And also the framework on which light-emitting diodes will be installed can be required. Plastic suitable for the frame. It can not be metal, conductive and must be with a heat-resistant substrate.
- A fuse that can also be found in a burnt out lamp.
- Capacitor and its capacity.
- For strong bonding of LEDs to the frame, you can take superglue or liquid nails.
In some schemes, one or two items from this list may not be useful. However, others may, on the contrary, need new chain links, for example: drivers or electrolytes. In each case, you need individually make a list of required materials.
How to make a LED lamp with your own hands
To start the installation of the lamp, it is necessary to prepare two damaged fluorescent lamps with a power of 13 W and a length of half a meter. There is no point in buying new ones, it’s best to find broken old ones. But they definitely need to check for cracks and chips.
Next in the store you need to purchase LED strip. This must be approached responsibly, since the choice is very large. Best suited ribbons with natural or pure white light. Since they do not change the shades of the surrounding objects and are superbright. Usually in these tapes the LEDs are grouped in groups of three. The power of one group is 14 W, and the voltage is 12 volts per meter tape.
Then you need to disassemble fluorescent lamps into its component parts. It is necessary to act very carefully - do not damage the wires and do not break the tube, since in this case poisonous vapors will escape. All extracted insides should not be thrown away. They can be useful in the future. Next, you need to cut the tape into sections of 3 diodes. After that it is worth getting expensive and unnecessary converters. Large, strong scissors or nippers are best suited to cut the ribbon.
As a result, there should be 22 groups. 3 LEDs or 66 LEDs, which must be connected in parallel along the entire length. To convert AC to DC, you need to increase the standard voltage of 220 volts to 250 in the electrical network. This is due to the straightening process. The next step is to figure out the number of LED sections. For this, it is necessary to divide 250 volts into 12 volts (voltage for 1 group of 3 pcs.). Having received as a result of 20.8 (3), it is necessary to round up in a big way - you get 21 groups. It is best to add another group, since the total number of LEDs will be divided into two lamps. And sharing an even number is much easier.
Next you will need a DC rectifier, which can be found in the extracted internals of the fluorescent lamp. Using nippers, we extract the capacitor from the common circuit of the converter. To make this action is quite easy, because it is separate from the diodes, it is only necessary to break off the board.
Using superglue and soldering, it is necessary to assemble the entire structure. You should not try to fit all 22 sections in one lamp. As mentioned above, you need to find 2 half-meter lamps, since it is simply impossible to place all the LEDs in one. No need to rely on self-adhesive layer, which is located on the back of the tape. He will not be able to serve for a long time. Therefore, to fix the LEDs, it is better to use superglue or liquid nails.
Summing up, you can disassemble all the advantages of the assembled product. The amount of light from the resulting lamps is 1.5 times greater than that of analogs. But the power consumption is much less than that of fluorescent lamps. The service life of this light source will be about 10 times longer. And also one of the advantages - it is the direction of light. It is directed strictly downwards and cannot be dispersed. Therefore, it will be best used at the desktop or in the kitchen. However, the emitted light does not have high brightness, but has low power consumption.
Continuous use of the lamp in the on state for the year will eat only 4 kW of energy. The cost of electricity consumed per year can be compared with the cost of a ticket in urban transport. Therefore, such light sources are often used where constant illumination is required, for example:
- The outside.
- Utility room.
- Emergency lighting.
Simple LED Light Bulb
There is another way to create a lamp. A table lamp, a chandelier or a lantern need an E14 or E27 base. Accordingly, the diodes and circuit used will be different. Compact fluorescent lamps are now common.. For the installation will need one burnt cartridge, as well as a modified list of materials. It is necessary:
- Burnt base E27.
- LEDs NK6.
- Driver RLD2−1 (power supply).
- Super glue.
- Electrical wiring.
- A piece of cardboard or plastic for the substrate.
- Pliers, scissors, soldering iron and other tools.
Let's move on to create a LED module with your own hands. First you need to disassemble the old lamp. In fluorescent lamps, the base is attached to the plate with the tubes and secured with clips. The base can be disconnected simply. It is necessary, finding places with latches, pry them with a screwdriver. You need to do everything quite carefully, so as not to damage the tubes. When opening it is necessary to ensure that the electrical wiring that leads to the basement remains intact.
From the top with gas discharge tubes you need to make a plate to which the LEDs will be attached. For this you need to disconnect the tube light bulbs. The remaining plate has 6 holes. To LEDs tightly fastened in it, you need to make a cardboard or plastic "bottom", which will also isolate the LEDs. It is necessary to use NK6 LEDs, they are multichip (6 crystals in a diode) with parallel connection.
Because of this, the light source is superbright with minimal power. In the cover you need to make 2 holes for each LED. Piercing holes should be carefully and evenly, so that their location matches each other and the intended scheme. If a piece of plastic is used as a “bottom”, then the LEDs will be fixed firmly. But in the case of a piece of cardboard you will need to glue the base with LEDs using superglue or liquid nails.
Since the light bulb will be used in a network with a voltage of 220 volts, you will need the driver RLD2-1. You can connect 3 diodes of 1 watt to it. For this lamp it took 6 LEDs with a power of 0.5 watts. From this it follows that the connection circuit will be formed from two series-connected parts of three parallel-connected LEDs.
Before you begin to build, you need to isolate the driver and the board from each other. To do this, you can use a piece of cardboard or plastic. This will avoid short circuits in the future. Do not worry about overheating, since the lamp is not heated at all. It remains to assemble the structure and test it in action. Because of the white light, the bulb seems to be much lighter. The luminous flux of the collected lamp is equal to 100−120 lumens. This may be enough to illuminate a small room (corridor or utility room).
Types of lamps
Luminaires on LEDs can be divided into two groups: indicator (LED) - are used as indicators, since they are low-power and dim. The green lights on the router are indicator LEDs. Such diodes are on the TV. Their application is quite diverse. For example:
- Backlight car dashboard.
- Various electronic devices.
- Backlight computer displays.
Their colors have a huge variety: yellow, green, red, purple, blue, white and even ultraviolet. It is worth remembering that the color of the LED does not depend on the color of the plastic. It is determined by the type of semiconductor material from which it is made. In most cases, to find out the color, you need to turn it on, since they are made of colorless plastic.
Lighting design is used to illuminate something. It has differences in its power and brightness. It also differs by a very low price, which is why it is often used in household and industrial lighting. This type of lighting is considered productive, ecological and cheap. To date, the level of technology development can allow to produce lamps with a high level of light output per 1 watt.