Low-voltage light sources today have gained fairly wide popularity. Recessed lighting devices with halogen lamps are often found in office buildings and structures. private sector, high-rise apartments, shop windows and many other places where it is required lighting.
The main advantage of such a lighting device is a long operational life and safety when using the lamp, which is caused by a low voltage level. But to connect halogen lamps to 12 volts, you must have the correct transformer.
Low-voltage halogen luminaire can operate on AC power only through a special power adapter, a step-down transformer. Today the most popular are electromagnetic and electronic transformers for halogen light sources.
Electromagnetic adaptive device has a large size and weight because of what is limited to its scope. Such devices ineffective and highly sensitive to voltage changes in the network alternating current. In turn, electronic devices for 12 volt halogen lamps are safer and have many additional functions: supplied with a device for protection against overheating, voltage fluctuations and have the function of soft start of lamps, greatly increasing their life service.
- 1 Transformers for halogen lamps
- 2 Features of the choice of transformer
- 3 Transformer installation features
- 4 Voltage converter connection rules
- 5 Low-voltage halogen lamps or 220 volt lamp
Transformers for halogen lamps
In order to qualitatively control the operation of a halogen lighting device, it is imperative to use a transformer that lowers the output voltage to 12 volts. Thereby overvoltage protection is achieved and electricity surges.
Such converters normalize the incoming electricity and give the output the desired voltage level from 6 to 24 volts depending on the halogen lamp used. Today, there are two main types of step-down transformers depending on the design of the device:
- toroidal winding converters;
- electronic or pulse step-down transformers.
Standard Winding Transformers considered the most affordable and easy to useand also have good power characteristics. It is easy to connect a halogen light source to such a device.
Principle of operation such a converter is based on the electromagnetic coupling of the coils of the device. But due to the use of the latter, such a transformer has serious disadvantages - a lot of weight, reaching several kilograms and dimensionsthat take up a lot of space. It is for this reason that such voltage-reducing devices are not widely used in everyday life.
Plus, electromagnetic transducer the device is hot during operation which may adversely affect halogen lamps. In addition, overheating of the toroidal winding transformers can lead to voltage surges in the house, thereby adversely affecting other home appliances.
In turn, low-voltage pulse converters, which are also called electronic transformers, received the widest possible range of applications both in everyday life and in production. Such popularity is primarily due to the small weight and dimensions of the device. Besides this, suchthe device qualitatively lowers the voltage, while not heating in the process. The only disadvantages of such a transformer for 12 volt halogen lamps are the relatively high cost of the instrument.
Recently, pulsed step down transformers have appeared on the electronics market, which are still being equipped at the production stage. Built-in protection against short circuit and overvoltage, which significantly extends the service life of both the converter and the sources Sveta.
Such electronic converters are often used for the installation of halogen light sources in the furniture industry or suspended ceilings. By the principle of operation, such a transformer differs from the winding analogue in that the energy conversion is achieved through semiconductor devices and electronic spare parts.
Features of the choice of transformer
In the process of selecting a transformer for 12 volt halogen lamps, certain factors must be taken into account. First determine device type: electronic or electromagnetic adapter. Recently, preference is given to electronic converters for halogen light sources, which due to their low weight and size can be used in any field electrical engineering.
The main parameter of the step-down transformer, regardless of the type of device, is instrument power. Due to the fact that in most cases parallel connection diagram halogen lamps, the power indicators of the transformer should be equated to the total power of all lighting fixtures. For example, if two 40 W lamps are connected, the converter power is 80 W plus a margin of 10-15%.
Naturally, the purchase of a transformer with an excessive power margin is impractical for the simple reason that the cost of the device increases significantly. In addition, this discrepancy leads to breakage of the converter, and often halogen lamps. Each adapter has minimum loadnecessary for stable operation of the device.
The output voltage of the transformer must comply with the nominal values of halogen lamps. Standard light sources are available with voltage ratings of 6, 12 and 24 V. But 12 volt light sources are most popular. If halogen lighting is mounted in rooms with high humidity, then you need to purchase a converter with galvanic isolation.
To connect to the adapter a large number of lighting devices at 12 volts is not always it is advisable to use one expensive device with large power indicators. It is often better to purchase several budget devices with lower power and use them to connect individual groups of halogen light sources.
This option is more practical, since in the event of the failure of one of several adapters there will be only one group of luminaires, while all other lamps will continue to illuminate an apartment. Wherein replacing one low-power lamp fixture is much cheaperthan the purchase of an expensive high-power step-down transformer, since its price is proportional to its power indicators.
Transformer installation features
To connect several halogen light sources at 12 volts to one step-down transformer use several popular options:
- in the break of the one-key switch;
- by combining halogen lamps into separate groups.
In the standard wiring diagram, the orange and blue wires are connected to the primary L and N terminals of the converter. In turn, the halogen lamps are connected to the secondary output terminals of the step-down transformer. At the same time, wiring should be carried out with copper cables of appropriate cross-section, which will ensure minimal energy loss.
In order to achieve uniformity of illumination of halogen light sources, their connection is made by identical conductors in a parallel circuit. Wherein wire size must be at least 1.5 mm square. If it is necessary to connect a large number of groups connected in parallel with halogen lamps, and the terminals at the output of the lowering the converter is not enough, then additional terminals are sold in electrical parts stores, the main thing is to have enough power device.
Also important is the length of the posting; ideally, it should be no more than 3 m. Such parameters are considered optimal for reducing energy losses and preventing conductor heating. Very long wiring is very hot, giving away some heat to halogen lamps, which for this reason can often fail or have different degrees of illumination. In a situation where the decrease in length electrical wires for any reason it is impossible to increase the cross section of the latter.
Voltage converter connection rules
The procedure for connecting halogen lamps to a step-down transformer implies the observance of certain rules for wiring lighting.
- With a parallel connection scheme for halogen lamps, the same length and cross-section of electrical conductors going directly to different light sources should be observed. Otherwise, 12 volt lamps will have different degrees of illumination, and the lighting in the room will be uneven.
- Due to the fact that the halogen lamp is very hot, the minimum distance of the light source to the step-down transformer must be more than 20 cm.
- If an electronic voltage converter is used, then the maximum wiring length from the device to lamps should not exceed 5 m. In this case, the greater the wiring length, the greater should be its cross section. Otherwise, the wires simply begin to warm up, and this is extremely undesirable.
- It is unacceptable to install the transformer on flammable surfaces without the use of additional protection from non-combustible materials.
Only by adhering to the above simple rules, connecting 12-volt halogen lamps to a step-down transformer will be performed in compliance with all safety requirements.
Low-voltage halogen lamps or 220 volt lamp
Naturally, many reasonably argue that it is easier to use for lighting in an apartment standard incandescent bulbs 220 volts. This is partly true, but, despite the initial costs of installing a converter for connecting low-voltage luminaires, such lighting has a number of advantages.
First of all, the operational life and reliability of a halogen lamp will override the costs of installing a transformer. Plus, due to the fact that modern adapters are equipped with additional protection systems against voltage drops and short-circuit 12 volt light sources will work much longer than standard incandescent bulbs 220 volt.