Do-it-yourself electrical installation with minimal knowledge of wiring and electricity is a real challenge. You just need to thoroughly and carefully study the instructions for connecting the machines in the switchgear and do everything strictly in accordance with it.
The worst thing that can happen when improper wire breeding is a short circuit, which can lead to the most undesirable consequences. From these consequences, in theory, is obliged to save the common machine, which must be in the chain before the panel is mounted.
If we are talking about the floor panel of a city dwelling house or individually located in an apartment, then a circuit breaker will be a sure protector. This may be a three-phase switch or a single-phase - it all depends on the wiring in the house.
More difficult, everything is obtained when working with the wiring of a private house. In this situation, you are obliged to protect the machine already located in the transformer box, from which a line is stretched to you. Sometimes there are intermediate transformers that can be seen on power lines in rural areas. Often they are supplemented with protective fuses to prevent the transformer from failing in case of accidents on the line.
But if you know exactly the rules of connection with the machine in the panel, you can avoid emergency situations. In this case, you will have the only unpleasant and somewhat dangerous job - to connect the assembled device "on hot", that is, to the wires that are under voltage. Or it will be necessary to call an electrician who will remove the voltage from the line during installation.
But first, let's look at the stages of installation and connection.
- 1 Grounding device
- 2 How to connect the phase and neutral wire
- 3 Mounting the shield with automatic
- 4 Wiring
- 5 Little about mechanics
- 6 Work "on hot"
- 7 What is the partner for
8 Safety first
- 8.1 Video: how to choose and assemble distribution board
In many ways, the electrical scheme of the floor panel depends on the house itself. As a rule, in a private house, if there are no plans to connect such powerful devices as three-phase boilers, then a single-phase line is started. These are two wires: zero and phase. In the internal wiring, it is customary to dilute the phase conductor in brown insulation, and the neutral conductor in blue.
If the wire is three-core, then the third core is usually colored yellow with a green stripe. This bright conductor is used for grounding. He never gets in the machine inside the shield. The grounding conductor must be continuous, therefore special conductive pads are used in the switchgear, which installed next to the machines, through them to conduct the grounding conductor and safely bring to the floor where it will connect to the bus grounding. As a rule, this is either the ground floor, or basement, or basement.
How to connect the phase and neutral wire
Connecting the phase conductor to the machine is required. Zero conductor does not always have to pass through the machine, but there are cases when the use bipolar automatic switch, and then pass through it, and the phase, and zero - each wire through its section.
Simultaneous disconnection of the phase and zero is justified especially in those situations when three-phase voltage is introduced into a house or non-residential building. In such situations, there is a greater risk that any of the phases may end up with zero. This is a short circuit mode, to which the machine that protects this phase must respond. But in those fractions of a second, while it is triggered, an overvoltage will occur on the other two phases. That is, instead of the prescribed 220 V, all 380 V can be there - the difference in voltages between the two phases with a normal three-phase connection.
Not a single household appliance is designed for such a voltage, and the more powerful it is, the more current it passes, and the more likely it will burn out during an overvoltage. Where a fuse immediately burns down on a low-power device, powerful equipment will still “endure” some time a large load, and during this time the pulsed power supply can fail or transformer. Therefore, it is preferable to protect such equipment as boilers, dishwashers and washing machines with bipolar machines that cut two chains at once.
Keep in mind that phase imbalance is harmful to the source that feeds the building. Generator, transformer box, substation - all this will soon deteriorate. For such purposes, there are special three-phase automata, which, with a large imbalance or an accident at one of the phases, can immediately turn off all three phases simultaneously. For more responsible circuits, it is recommended to connect a four-phase automaton, which also de-energizes the neutral wire.
Mounting the shield with automatic
So, consider several options.
- First option. It is necessary to make a device in the house where all three phases are entered. Most of them are at home with elevators. Electricians professionals recommend using all three phases for different apartments. Therefore, the introductory machine will be three-phase. According to the rule, introductory machines are usually installed in the shield at the top left. From him the wires will disperse on the apartment machines. In the case when three apartments are connected to the shield, then it is best to feed each apartment with its own phase: this way there will be no risk of overloading any of the shoulders. Next you need to find out what the electrical connection in each of the apartments.
- The second option is the division into rooms. In old houses, wiring is usually divided into two parts: lighting and sockets. Therefore, for each apartment used only two machines.
In modern homes try to install a two-phase automatic or at least a single-phase on the "power equipment". Equipment, in turn, can be divided into the following categories:
- washing machines;
- electric stoves;
- other powerful household appliances.
To do this, a separate wire is connected to the device, which usually contains zero, phase and grounding. That is, for each apartment there are three automatic machines and one grounding conductor. Unipolar automatons are used on sockets and lighting, so zero will have to be connected to special pads.
For example, consider the single-pole connection option. What does it mean? That is, only the phase will pass through the circuit breaker. Such an automaton has one contact for input phase, the other for output. As is well known, the lead-in contact is located at the top, while the lead pin is located at the bottom.
Before connecting, it is necessary to make sure by marking near the top contact that it is really intended for the supply conductor. To connect this wire - it must have brown or black insulation, it must be cleaned of this insulation by 7-10 mm. The wire is inserted into the hole in the upper end of the machine and clamped with a screw located on the front of the case.
The output wire is also attached at the bottom. This is exactly the wire that comes into the apartment. Here, too, it is important to monitor the marking of conductors so that it does not happen that the switch on the chandelier interrupts zero, rather than phase. That is, the conductor leaving the automaton for an apartment should not be zero. While the apartment is de-energized, you can open the nearest switch and ring the wire from it to the apartment by a tester. If the tester shows conductivity, then this wire inside your apartment is diluted as phase.
However, the connection of the machine in the dashboard can conceal another pitfall: if not one is divorced on the floor phase, and at least two, it is necessary not to confuse them so that the apartment is not between the sockets and the chandeliers, the difference is 380 AT! No matter how many machines there are in an apartment, everything must be connected to the same phase.
Experienced electricians use a little trick when you need to connect several machines and not make a mistake with the introductory phase. To do this, you need to take one conductor and strip not only the end of it on it, but also make intermediate cleared places so that each of them can go to the contact of the machine.
Ideally, if the machines are on the DIN rail side by side, then you can measure these distances simply by attaching the conductor so that the transitional part of it from one machine to another forms a loop. It will allow the wire to exit the enclosure vertically.
The cleaned place should have a length twice as long as at the end of the wire, because we will have to make a small loop out of it, which will have to connect the machine. On this eyelet you will need to put on a heat shrink tube or wrap tightly with tape at the place where the insulation ends. This will give our wire stiffness.
Then the loop must be inserted into the contact hole of the machine and firmly tighten. Cleared places should be according to the number of circuit breakers. But we will be sure that the phase is properly divorced - the same for the apartment.
Little about mechanics
Having dealt with the question of how to properly connect the machine, the question of how to install it remained unresolved. If a new dashboard is planned, then, most likely, it is necessary first of all to put a DIN-rail there.
Each automatic switch of a modern design has a special clip for fastening on this rail. The same fixture has a feed-through contact, which is used for the ground conductor. By the way, the latch of such a grounding conductor is not made as a separate plastic element, but as a spring part of the housing. This is very convenient, since the risk of losing small but very important detail disappears.
In the case when it is not possible to find a pass-through element, the ground connection can also be made by twisting. However, for fidelity, the wires can be tinned with a soldering iron and put a heat shrink tube on them as insulation. It is quite justified. Do not forget that phase and zero conductors still “walk” along the shields. In the absence of a heat shrinkable tube, it is possible to use electrical tape. This will be no less protection from any surprises.
By the way, it is strictly worth remembering that the connection and even the grounding should not be done in such a way as to twist the copper and aluminum wires together. These two metals form galvanopair, which leads to their oxidation and disturbance of conductivity between them. If it turns out that there is no possibility to connect them through the passage element or the block with steel contacts, then you can tamp down each of the wires and carefully solder the connection.
Work "on hot"
There are frequent cases and situations of performing work on connecting automata in force majeure situations. A great example of such a situation, burnout or automatic breakdown. Often it is necessary to connect a new circuit breaker when the shield is energized. What you need to know for such works?
- The first rule - do not panic and do not rush.
- The second rule is to use a special indicator screwdriver.
Consider everything in detail. If it is not possible to disconnect the access shield, then from the “injured” machine, then the following steps should be performed:
- Remove the power, that is, unhook the lead wire from it.
- Wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from sparks, electrical rubber gloves.
- Arm yourself with an indicator screwdriver and a conventional screwdriver with an insulating handle.
- On clothes with short sleeves, wear something with long sleeves over it.
- Now gently, without touching any metal objects in the panel, as in the event of an accident the phase can “sit” on them with one hand the screw of the lead-in contact is unscrewed, with the other hand the wire is retracted and bent so that it does not touch any metal surface.
It is forbidden to take this wire by the bare part!
Sparking during such a trip is normal. The wire just needs to be moved away from the contact confidently and quickly to a distance that does not make a spark.
Before you connect something, you need to take the indicator screwdriver and examine the parts of the shield related to the apartment for the presence of voltage. If not, then you can install and connect the new machine.
If several phases enter the switchgear, of course, they can also be switched off. However, this will lead you to leave your neighbors without electricity. Therefore, the connection of the new circuit breaker will have to be done with an eye to the fact that there is one or two more phases in the shield.
The closure of the supply conductor, which you so skillfully disconnected from the damaged machine, with any other phase or zero will lead to overvoltage and real firework of sparks, from which, just in case, clothing should be protected and points
What is the partner for
As you know, when working with electricity you need to apply as many safety measures as possible. Another practical expert advice is the repair of electrical wiring with a partner.
The person chosen for this role, quite possibly, will not understand anything in electrical circuits. However, he must clearly know how to act if someone has gotten under stress: drag a person by his clothes, without touching his body, from the wire that is under tension.
It is advisable to unbutton the jacket that is worn to protect your hands, before making the connection to the electrical panel. It is vital. The fact is, a free part is formed on the back, for which a person can be dragged in the event of an electric shock. Partner will be comfortable to grab her. Also, the partner should remember how to call an ambulance or emergency services.
Help partner can be invaluable in the case when the shield is located high. He will be able to serve or receive them. Thus, it is not necessary all the time to go down and rise again from a stool or from a stepladder.
Summarizing all the above, I must say, you should never forget about safety when working with electricity. Neglecting at least one of them can lead to serious health problems, and sometimes even death.
A person who is poorly isolated from the ground, and when touched to the phase, can be shocked with current. Electricity will pass through the whole body and go to the ground. There are quite often cases when a person dies from the effects of a current passing through the heart.
The grounding conductor is safe and can be safely taken in hand. But here it is necessary to do it with caution and check it in advance for the absence of breaks in the wiring and electrical panel.
That is why it is vital to purchase overalls, rubberized tools and use insulation materials for working with electric wires.