Absolutely everything, new and already served, rechargeable batteries are often discharged. Their constant charging usually comes from the generator and occurs directly during the movement of the car. Long downtime at any time of the year, long winter parking, working radio in standing cars, "twitching" in urban congestion, sudden changes in ambient temperature and frequent off-road driving — all of these factors inevitably lead to discharge batteries.
Therefore, each driver should have a “magic wand” in his garage (trunk) for a quick solution to any sudden inconvenience.
Of course, inexperienced car enthusiasts will want to secure buy a second battery, but this radical trick may be ineffective. Having acquired a dry-charged, rather than flooded battery, out of ignorance, you can “step on the rake” a second time. Although the dry-charged battery model is stored for up to 5 years, it will take extra time from 3 to 10 hours to re-condition it with a special electrolyte.
So, it would be wiser to immediately purchase a charger that quickly restores the car’s battery condition.
1 Car batteries
- 1.1 Capacity
- 1.2 Type of
- 1.3 Charge current
2 Charging device
- 2.1 Power supply
- 2.2 Frequency of use and nature of loads
- 2.3 Selection
- 2.4 Charging sequence
- 2.5 Precautionary measures
The eternal battery does not yet exist, but modern technology has already extended the life of this automotive device with two up to 5-7 years. For proper selection of the charger (charger), the owner of the car must know the parameters of his car battery.
The nominal electric capacity of the battery is the power of the electric charge, issued by a fully charged battery when discharged to the minimum allowable voltage. The capacity value is indicated in non-system units - Ah (ampere-hour).
Depending on the additives used in the material of the electrodes, modern starter car batteries divided into the following type groups:
- Sb - antimony, lead acid, with liquid electrolyte - 12 V - serviced;
- AGM - with helium electrolyte or with absorbent vitreous material - 15 V;
- Ca / Ca - calcium - 16 V - maintenance free;
- Ca +, Ca / Sb - hybrid - according to the passport - low-maintenance.
All car batteries are charged only with direct and not alternating current, in three ways: 1) with constant current, 2) with constant voltage, 3) combined (optimal) - at the beginning, with a constant current at varying voltage, and at the end of the process at a constant voltage with a falling current strength
The principle of operation of the chargers is the same. Receiving power from the outside, the charger straightens and simultaneously lowers strength and stress current almost to the required values for car batteries. Restoring the battery charge of the battery, the goals are pursued not only by starting the motor itself, but also by starting it. without jerks, a smooth set of revolutions up to the rated speed, as well as ensuring a slow uniform stop work.
Depending on the used power source of the charger for car batteries there are the following varieties:
- from the cigarette lighter - 12 V;
- pulse AT and ATH blocks - from 6 to 24 V;
- from the mains - 220 V;
- standalone (with built-in battery);
- solar powered;
- dual systems for heavy machinery.
Frequency of use and nature of loads
The most durable and suitable for intensive use are considered stationary models of professional models. The simplest household instances for motorists - compact and mobile, but because of the primitive device (output regulator voltage, ammeter, diode bridge, transformer) require increased attention during the whole process charging Combined models are designed for emergency servicing of truck batteries.
Before buying a charger, you need to decide on the following indicators and additional functions of the charger:
- Charger output voltage. Charger 6—12— 24 V, covers the entire class of batteries and is considered universal. ZU 6 V is used for motorcycles and boats, and 24 V for trucks, tractors and buses.
- Battery Capacity and Charging Time. Based on the factory rated capacity (Ah), the requirement for the maximum current delivered from the charger is determined. The capacity value is indicated by the manufacturer on the battery case. When dividing this value by the power of the purchased charger, it is possible to calculate the minimum possible time to fully charge this battery from this charger. And, the higher the capacity of the charger itself, the more powerful the battery it can charge.
- Adjusting the output current to the memory. The possibility of stepwise or smooth adjustment of the output currents, provides the ability to use a single charger for different types of batteries.
- Maximum memory current limit. A switch with a limiter protects against overcharging and undercharging, significantly extends the battery life.
Type choice - transformer or pulse. Classic transformer chargers are the most reliable, but very cumbersome. It is preferable to purchase a transformer model with an automatic control system. Pulse or inverter models are convenient not only by the full automation of the process, but also by compact dimensions.
Model selection - pre-start (charging) or start-charging. Charging models of chargers charge the battery for a long time, but in a sparing mode and preserve the properties of the battery as much as possible. Start-charging options work in both normal and accelerated mode. They are able to charge a fully discharged battery and even start a car motor without battery.
Express Recovery Feature. The presence of this function allows using the method of desulphation with short pulses to completely clean the battery plates from lead sulfate and restore the factory capacity of the battery.
Automatic charge. The undoubted advantage of a fully automated charging process is indisputable - not only time is released, but also human errors are removed. factor - the microprocessor accurately measures; sets the desired parameters of voltage and current, depending on the stage of charging; monitors temperature indicators.
Availability of winter mode and display. The temperature compensation function is an innovative technology that allows you to charge an absolutely cold battery, which significantly saves time. The advantages of having a night-back LCD display are self-explanatory.
Protection class level. It is great if your memory device is able to block its switching on if the terminals are not properly connected, automatically shut off when fully charged, have protection against short circuits, voltage drops and jumps in the network.
Recharging or fully charging the battery outside the car is made when the density of the electrolyte drops below 1.22 g / cm ³ or if it is impossible to start the engine, as follows:
- check for distilled water, which may be needed at the end of the process;
- open the filler caps of the battery;
- first connect the "+" and then "-" terminals of the battery and charging;
- Turn on the power to the charger.
If the charger is not automated, it is necessary, every 2 hours, to independently monitor the amount of incoming charging current (not higher than 1/10 of the nominal capacity of the battery); working voltage (not higher than 16 V); the density and t of the electrolyte (optimal = +30 ° C, the boundary +45 ° C).
By the time of full charge, the value of the charging current should fall. The battery is considered charged if within 2 hours the voltage and density of the electrolyte remain unchanged, and the release of gases from all necks becomes uniform and moderate.
After the process is complete:
- power off the charger;
- disconnect "-", and then "+" terminals;
- check the level of electrolyte in each section (if necessary, top up with distillate);
- tightly tighten the neck of each section.
If the process of charging the battery does not occur in fresh air, then the room should be equipped with a powerful system of supply and exhaust ventilation.
Take the battery out of the car should only with the engine off, and when charging in the case of the machine - not only make sure that the engine is turned off, but also that all electrical cables are disconnected.
Do not come near the charged battery too closely with a lit cigarette, another source. open flame or spark - a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen released from the necks, is harmful and very explosive.
Making your choice when buying a car battery charger is not worth saving. The costs incurred will pay off not only simple and convenient operation, but also significantly extend the service life of the battery.