By energy-saving include fluorescent compact and LED. Currently, there is an active process of replacing traditional incandescent bulbs with energy-saving ones. analogs.
To equivalently replace incandescent bulbs, which provides a certain illumination, it is necessary to choose energy-saving with equal or close value. luminous fluxmeasured in lumens (lm). The value of the luminous flux specific energy-saving is given on its packaging.
- 1 Lamp power table
- 2 Example of calculating the lighting efficiency
- 3 findings
Lamp power table
The table shows the comparison of the electrical power of incandescent bulbs with fluorescent compact and LED, providing different light fluxes. In the last row of the table presents the efficiency of light outputthat characterizes power consumption.
|Luminous flux, lm||Lamp power, W|
|incandescent||fluorescent compact||LED light|
|Light efficiency, lm / W||̴ 12||̴ 50||̴ 90|
The table below aligns the power of incandescent bulbs to the powers of both compact fluorescent and LED, sets power ratio.
It follows from the table that the efficiency (cost-effectiveness) of a compact luminescent lamp above an incandescent lamp is 4.2 times higher, and that of a LED one, 7.5 times higher. It should be noted that the LED is 1.8 times more economical than compact fluorescent.
Example of calculating the lighting efficiency
Cost-effectiveness is estimated by the example of annual lighting costs. apartments. Suppose you need daily for 3 hours for one year (365 days x 3 h = 1050 h) to use for lighting 3 incandescent bulbs, with a capacity of 100 watt each The total power consumption is 300 watts or 0.3 kW. Equal luminous flux can create 3 luminescent compact with a total power of 78 watts (3 pcs. x 26 W) or 0.078 kW either, 3 LEDs with a power of 14 watts each, which corresponds to 42 W of their total power (3 pcs. x 14 W). Calculation of the cost of coverage for each of the options presented in the table.
|Indicator||Lighting option with lamps|
|incandescent||fluorescent compact||LED light|
|Total power consumption, kW||0,3||0,078||0,042|
|Annual electricity consumption, kWh||328,5||85,4||46,0|
|Annual energy costs (at a cost of 4.68 p. for 1 kWh), p.||1537||400||215|
|Cost of 3 lamps, p.||150||450||990|
|Total costs in the first year, p.||1687||850||1205|
|Costs in the 2nd year, p.||1687||400||215|
|Total cost for 2 years, p.||3374||1250||1420|
|Costs in the 3rd year, p.||1687||400||215|
|Total costs for 3 years, p.||5061||1650||1635|
It should be borne in mind: the life of incandescent bulbs is 1000 hours (this will require the purchase of 3 pieces annually), luminescent compact 8000 hours, and LED 25000, which is also taken into account in calculations in efficiency options.
As can be seen from the table, the option of lighting with incandescent lamps turned out to be more costly, and, therefore, ineffective by the end of the first year. In the first year, the cost of this option is 2 times higher than the cost of the lighting option with compact fluorescent and 1.4 times the cost with LED.
Second year of coverage confirms the effectiveness of the option with luminescent compacts above the version with LED (at the end of the second year loses 170 p.).
At the end of the third year, the LED version becomes more efficient than the compact fluorescent version.
It should be noted that the comparison options are given as of the level in September 2015 for the central regions of Russia with the constant cost of electricity and prices for lamps.
When choosing a lighting option is necessary consider the following circumstances:
- in addition to the inefficiency of using incandescent bulbs as a source of illumination compared to energy-saving, it should be borne in mind their fire hazard (the temperature of the bulb included lamp exceeds 100 degrees Celsius);
- in the luminescent compact in a glass flask there are mercury vapor, which makes it unsafe during operation;
- fluorescent compacts have a time delay when turned on, so they need at least 3 minutes to achieve maximum brightness (during this time, the inert gas is heated to flask;);
- luminescent compact characteristic of the effect of flicker, which prohibits their use in rooms with moving parts of mechanisms, since perhaps the occurrence of a stroboscopic effect (with a stroboscopic effect, the moving parts may appear motionless).
These deficiencies are absent in LEDthat allows you to make a choice in their favor.
Trends in the development of technology, manufacturing technology led to reduce their cost by 3.5 times in the last 5 years. At the same time, the cost of electricity increased 2.2 times (from 2.15 to 4.68 rubles. for 1 kWh).
- Thus, while maintaining these trends, LED will crowd out the luminescent compact during 2016 - 2018. and push them out (by 85%) by 2019.
- It is necessary to mention the versatility of LED, which can be used for a flashlight, and for home and street lighting.