How to assemble an electric switch with your own hands? Such a question arises in every person who decides to do a major overhaul in the apartment or build a cottage. This device is necessary not only to supply electricity to a residential area. It helps to control the energy supplied, the ability to quickly turn off electricity in the event of a dangerous situation and in other cases.
Modern technology allows almost everyone who understands electrical engineering to create devices in home conditions. The assembly of the electrical panel is done by hand. after becoming familiar with the basic rules of electrical safety and the circuit of electrical circuits of the room.
1 Actions at installation of an electric switchboard
- 1.1 Select the type of shield
- 1.2 Machine size
- 1.3 Cover for indoor installation
- 1.4 Outdoor machine
- 1.5 Installation of machines
- 2 Recommendations from experts
Actions at installation of an electric switchboard
You can assemble the device for use in the country or in the apartment. There is no particular difference between the structures, and therefore an example will be a product for use in an apartment. The problem may arise at the moment when the installation of machines begins. This is a special detail that serves as a switch. You cannot assemble the automatic machine with your own hands, and therefore the only option would be to purchase it in a special store. The most standard switchboard (hereinafter referred to as automatic) consists of a case, internal mechanisms and wires.
Before you install the machine in the room, especially this nuance concerns the apartment, it is necessary to determine the layout of the room. She can be with:
- three-phase wiring;
- single phase wiring.
Installation of the automatic machine in the apartment can be done only after mapping all instrumentswhich will be used in it. These consumed electricity devices will be distributed to zones. In each of the allocated places, specific devices will be connected.
After a simple assessment of the zones, it is necessary to select the most suitable place for mounting the machine. An important nuance becomes taking into account the external parameters of the future shieldas well as its weight. One of the most convenient places to accommodate such a product is a corridor. The location is considered to be beneficial, as it will have to spend less resources on its connection. Regarding the rules and standards, this nuance is optional. The machine can be mounted in the most remote room.
Special attention should be paid to the distance from the floor. The most rational is the location of the machine at the level of human eyes. A prerequisite is safe and quick hand movement for using the product. In the case when there are children in the living room, it is necessary to mount the door on itwhich can be made from any material. On it you need to install a lock that will protect against incorrect use. The best option is to use a metal structure.
All installation work can be divided into several stages:
- selection of the type of shield;
- the size of the machine;
- installation inside the wall of the dwelling;
- installation of the outer wall of the house;
- installation of machines.
Select the type of shield
Types of machines are actually quite a lot. They are distinguished by the place of installation, material, external data. This choice depends on the discretion of the owner, as well as on the ease of installation of the device. If a wall made of plasterboard is used indoors, the installation of an embedded machine will be an ideal option. If the wall is made of reinforced concrete, it is better to choose an outdoor type of installation. Otherwise the wall will have to peck to obtain the necessary size of the recess. This process in the concrete structure is problematic.
The best option would be to use a scheme called a star. As mentioned above, the apartment is divided into several zones: a loggia, a room and a kitchen. For them, there are two lines - for sockets and lighting. Therefore, it is two wires that should fit the distribution machine. Further, the wires branch out as needed to electrically power the entire apartment.
This characteristic will depend on how many items will be contained in the box itself. It is worth paying attention that one single-pole automaton can occupy only one module. A prerequisite is the installation of parts of mechanisms, the dimensions of which are multiples of the parameters of the shield itself. If the device should have 8 automata, then 8 modules will be created by the manufacturer. If you add up the number of used modules, you can easily determine the size of the future body of the shield. The name corresponds to the size, and therefore the shield on 12 modules will have the same name.
If you take as an example a two-room apartment, you will need 36 modules. Some enclosures may not only contain automata, but also a special place for the installation of an electricity meter, as well as a number of other devices. To select the right product, you need to think in advance about the number of items. This list means only the elements installed inside the case.
Cover for indoor installation
If you need to connect the machine inside the wall of the room, you need to think of a place to put a whole bunch of wires. For this purpose, often create special grooves in the wall. In the case of a similar situation with an external connection, a box is used. After the bundle of wires has been laid, it must be inserted into the body of the shield to connect to the machine. Make it pretty simple. In the plastic case there are special openings that open after a slight pressure. The excess part is removed and the necessary wire is passed through. In the metal case, these holes have already been created.
Protection of the wire in the case is carried out by fastening the glands and special couplings. In case the metal case implies hermetic closure, the couplings must be installed.
If the external connection scheme is selected for the installation of the automaton, then the fastening in this case is carried out with the help of dowels or screws. If the inner mechanism needs to be attached behind the panel at the back, and fixed to the side with an adhesive mixture or alabaster, then the outer one will have to work. After the device will flaunt on the wall, and the wires will be brought in, comes the turn of automation. It is worth noting that the supply of wiring inside the case occurs in the same way, which is described in the previous installation.
For a convenient way to install automatons, each housing has a special connector called the DIN rail. At this point, you can easily install an electric meter or other device. It is enough to fix it with screws or wood screws.
Installation of machines
One of the easiest tasks is to install DIN rail machines. When the mechanism is fixed, there is a characteristic click. He reports on the proper mounting and performance of work. To change the position of the machine, it is enough to pry it with a screwdriver for the fastening "eye". It is easily released from the attachment and can be moved to any other place, replaced or repaired.
The module is one unit, which has top and bottom terminals for connecting wires. In the center of the outer panel has a special lever. With its help, the automatic switching of the automatic device takes place. The best option would be installation of an electric meter on the right side from the body of the shield.
Recommendations from experts
Each work with electricity should be carried out only with the permission of the masters. If at the dacha you can still create an automaton yourself, then in the apartment you will definitely need to contact one of the city services. It is the staff of these services and share their experiences.
- The best option would be to purchase a shield for a larger number of machines. Often there is a need to install a new device in the house, and in this case it will not be necessary to change the shield.
- It is worth paying attention to the division of zones for residential premises. Bath and all appliances in it connect to one machine, room and bedroom to the other connectors.
- RCD must be installed in front of the machine. Be sure to count it with a margin of rated current. Otherwise, it may burn out.
- Ideally, the installation of the RCD after each machine is taken into account. Place them in front of the machine can not. This is prohibited by the rules of Energonadzor.
- No need to install automatons and RCDs on the outlet to which the computer will be connected.
- According to the rules, the RCD should be mounted after each machine. In real life, the cost of one of this element is great. Often it is necessary to install one RCD after several machines.
- To acquire and install the best mechanical UZO. An electronic device may malfunction due to electrical noise.
The process of installing an electrical panel with their own hands is simple. It is only important to understand the basic installation techniques, study the wiring diagrams and inform the authorities about your intention. Taking advantage of the knowledge and standards obtained, even the most complex project will not cause doubts and problems for the home master.